People from all over the world were always
crazy about India and its wealth, tradition and knowledge. The Aryans came from Central Europe and settled
down in India. The Persians followed by the Iranians and
Parsis immigrated to India. Then came the Moghuls and they too settled
down permanently in India. But the French and British people came by
17th Century colonized India by grabbing the full control of almost all territories across
India. Britishers had ruled India for nearly 200 years. In this video you will be seeing the timeline
of Freedom Struggle after foundation of The Indian National Congress. The Indian National Congress was Formed
in 1885 by A.O.Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil servant.
First session was held in Bombay under W.C.Banerjee in 1885 with 72 delegates.
The party was quite moderate in its approach and confided in British justice and generosity
during its first two decades. But the repressive measures of the British
gave rise to extremists within Congress like Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and
Lala Lajpat Rai (who are known popularly as Lal, Bal, Pal). • Partition of Bengal is carried out by
Lord Curzon on Oct 16, 1905, through a royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of
Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal.
• The objective was to set up a communal gulf between Hindus and Muslims.
• A mighty upsurge swept the country against the partition. National movement found real
expression in the movement against the partition of Bengal in 1905. • Lal Bal Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar
Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal), and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role in 1905’s
Swadeshi movement. • INC took the Swadeshi call first at the
Banaras Session by 1905 presided over by G.K.Gokhale. • Foreign goods were kept on fire at various
places. • Muslim league founded in 1906 Under the
leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.
• It was a loyalist, communal and conservative political organization which supported the
partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi movement, demanded special safeguards to its
community and a separate electorate for Muslims. • In Dec 1906 at Calcutta, the INC under
Dadabhai Naoroji adopted ‘Swaraj’ (Self-govt) as the goal of Indian people. • The INC split into two groups – The
extremists and The moderates, at the Surat session in 1907. Extremists were led by Bal,
Pal, Lal while the moderates by G.K.Gokhale. • Besides other constitutional measures,
Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909) created a separate electorate for Muslims.
• The reform Aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the Moderates and the
Muslims to the Government’s side. • Ghadar Party was Formed by Lala Hardayal,
Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna in 1913. • The HQ of the party was at San Francisco. • Home Rule Movement Started by B.G.Tilak
(by April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and S.Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras
( by Sept, 1916). • Its Objective is Self – government for
India in the British Empire. • Tilak linked up the question of Swaraj
with the demand for the formation of Linguistic States and education in vernacular language.
He gave the slogan: “Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it”. • Lucknow Pact Happened
following a war between Britain and Turkey leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims
by 1916. • Both INC and Muslim League concluded this
Pact ( The Congress party had accepted the separate electorates and both jointly demanded
for a representative government and dominion status for the country). • After the Lucknow Pact, a British policy
was announced by 1917 which aimed at “increasing association of Indians in every branch of
the administration for progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral
part of the British empire”. This came to be called the August Declaration. • Rowlatt Act brought by march 18, 1919
gave unbridled powers to the govt. to arrest and imprison suspects without trial for two
years maximum. This law enabled the Government to suspend the right of Habeas Corpus, which
had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.
• The act Caused a wave of anger in all sections across the nation. It was the first
country-wide agitation by Gandhiji and marked the foundation of the Non Cooperation Movement. • People were agitated over the arrest of
Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal. • On April 13, 1919 – General O’ Dyer
fires at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar.
• As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and thousands injured.
• Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood in protest. Sir Shankaran Nair resigned from
Viceroy’s Executive Council after this. • Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire
into it. • On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh
killed O’Dyer when the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London. • Muslims were agitated by the treatment
done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War.
• Two brothers, Mohd.Ali and Shaukat Ali started the Khilafat movement by 1920. • Non-cooperation Movement was the first
mass-based political movement under Gandhiji. • Congress passed the resolution in its
Calcutta session in Sept 1920. • A mob of people at Chauri – Chaura (near
Gorakhpur) clashed with police and burnt 22 policemen on February 5, 1922.
• This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation movement on Feb.12, 1922. • Simon Commission was Constituted under
John Simon by 1927, to review the political situation in India and to introduce further
reforms and extension of parliamentary democracy. • Indian leaders opposed the commission,
as there were no Indians in it. • The Government used brutal repression
and police attacks to break the popular opposition. At Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten
in a lathi-charge. He succumbed to his injuries on Oct.30, 1928. • On Dec.19, 1929 under the President ship
of J.L.Nehru, the INC, at its Lahore Session, declared Poorna Swaraj (Complete independence)
as its ultimate goal. • On Dec.31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour
flag was unfurled and Jan 26, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, was to be celebrated
every year. In remembrance with this only Indian republic
day is celebrated by January 26. • Dandi March by Gandhiji on 1930 is also
called as the Salt Satyagraha. • Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started
his march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandhi to break
the salt law. • He reached the seashore on Apr.6, 1930.
• He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement. • First Round Table conference was the first
conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals. It was held on Nov.12,
1930 in London to discuss Simon commission. • The conference was Boycotted by INC, Muslim
League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and some others were there. • Moderate Statesman, Sapru, Jaikar and
Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government.
• Government represented by Irwin and INC by Gandhiji signed a pact on March 5, 1931.
• In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round
table conference. • The government on its part released the
political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages
along the coast. • Gandhiji represented the INC and went
to London to meet British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald. • However, the session was soon deadlocked
on the minorities issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by Muslims
but also by Depressed Classes, Indian Christians and Anglo – Indians. • The Communal Award was Announced by Ramsay
McDonald which had showed divide and rule policy of the British.
• Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and
even Backward classes. • Gandhiji, who was in Yeravada jail at
that time, started a fast unto death against it. • After the announcement of communal award
and subsequent fast of Gandhiji, mass meeting took place almost everywhere.
• Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, B.R.Ambedkar and M.C.Rajah became active.
• Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhiji broke his fast on the sixth day ( that
is on Sept 25, 1932). • In this, the idea of separate electorate
for the depressed classes was abandoned, but seats reserved to them in the provincial legislature
were increased. • Third Round Table Conference held at 19352
was proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison. The discussions led
to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935.
• Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1923.
• Mohd. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality. • Muslim League first passed the proposal
of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940. • In Dec. 1941, Japan entered the World
War – II and advanced towards Indian borders. By March 7, 1942, Rangoon fell and Japan occupied
the entire S E Asia. • The British govt. with a view to getting
co-operation from Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps, leader of the House of Commons to
settle terms with the Indian leaders. • He offered a draft which proposed dominion
status to be granted after the war. • Rejected by the Congress as it didn’t
want to rely upon future promises. • Gandhiji termed it as a post dated cheque
in a crashing bank. • The resolution for The Quit India Movement
was passed on Aug.8, 1942, at Bombay. Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’.
• On Aug 9, the Congress was banned and its important leaders were arrested.
• The arrests provoked anger among the masses and, there being no program of action, the
movement became spontaneous and violent. Violence spread throughout the country.
• However the movement was crushed. The Indian National Army was Founded by Ras
behari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh. • Subhash Chandra Bose secretly escaped
from India in 1941, and reached Berlin in Germany. In July 1943, he joined the INA at
Singapore. There, Ras behari Bose handed over the leadership to him.
• The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British army who had been
taken prisoners by the Japanese after they conquered S.E.Asia.
• Two INA head quarters were Rangoon and Singapore .
• INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi
Brigade was an exclusive women force. • The struggle for freedom entered a decisive
phase in the year 1945-46. The new Labour Party PM.Lord Attlee, made a declaration on
March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman,
Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V.Alexander) will visit India.
• The mission held talks with the INC and Muslim League to bring about acceptance of
their proposals. • On May 16, 1946, the mission put towards
its proposals. It rejected the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union
consisting of British India and the Princely States was suggested.
• Both Congress and Muslims League were accepted it. • Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim
government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on Sept.2, 1946. J.L.Nehru was
its Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President. • Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the
elections because the Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent
assembly. • Therefore, Muslim League withdrawn its
acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan on July 29, 1946.
• It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution, which condemned both the British Government
and the Congress (Aug 16, 1946). It resulted in heavy communal riots.
• Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27, 1947. • The Constituent assembly met on Dec 9,
1946 and Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president. • On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put
forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem.
The outlines of the Plan were: • India to be divided into India and Pakistan.
• Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned • There would be a separate constitutional
assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution. • The Princely states would enjoy the liberty
to join either India or Pakistan or even remain independent.
• Aug.15, 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan.
• The British govt. passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 1947, which contained
the major provisions put forward by the Mountbatten plan. • All political parties accepted the Mountbatten
plan. • At the time of independence, there were
562 small and big Princely States in India. • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel who was the
first home minister, used iron hand in this regard. By August 15, 1947, all the States,
with a few exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of
Accession. These all remaining Princely states alongwith
Goa which was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry held by French also added to the Indian Territory
Later. Hope you have got a glimpse of the timeline
between formation of congress party and till the independednce of India. Out of all these movements against the britishers
comment below which one you think was powerful. Do subscribe to our channel to get more videos
like this. Thank you.