'The Hindu' Analysis for 25th July, 2019 (Current Affairs for UPSC/IAS)

'The Hindu' Analysis for 25th July, 2019 (Current Affairs for UPSC/IAS)



hello and welcome to buy Jews is first up a small request if you're liking our initiatives if you believe we provide good quality and timely content to you please subscribe to our channel and recommend this platform to your friends who may also get benefitted how can I know that our content is being appreciated and you would want us to continue if this video is liked by let's say ten thousand aspirants I would consider this as an appreciation on your part so first like the video and let's get started with the analysis of today's the Hindu newspaper beginning with a news item on page number 12 or the daily edition of the Hindu relevant 4GS paper – the year was 1967 and the law was enacted called unlawful activities Prevention Act but what was the objective of this particular piece of legislation the objective was that we should use this law to punish those individuals who commit unlawful activities or who fund these unlawful activities or those who support these unlawful activities as well as terrorist acts so basically the intention of the government was that we should have a strong anti-terror legislation in this country and whoever Commission's funds or supports unlawful activities and terrorist acts in this country we should punish those organizations after that we had two other important anti-terror legislation in this country one was tada terrorist and disruptive activities Act and the other was pata prevention of terrorist act which was passed in the early 2000 but both these anti-terror legislation have now been repealed so as of now we have one major anti-terror legislation in this country and that is unlawful activities Prevention Act now this unlawful act prevention at it authorized the government what the government can do government can either ban these unlawful organizations or what the government can do government can ban these terrorist organizations or what the government can do government can also penalize membership of such unlawful and terrorist organizations now what does this amendment Lok Sabha has amended a bill omits the opposition walkout and now this bill tries to make this entity legislation even more stringent so as of now if you are a member of a terrorist organization or if you are a member of an unlawful organization you could have been only penalized now what this bill the amended bill talks about it talks about that we can even designate individuals as terrorists primarily we could have designated organizations as terrorist organizations or unlawful organizations but an individual member of such organizations was only penalized but if an individual has been penalized it does not stop him from setting up another terrorist organization so that is what the objective of the current government is that if we designate individuals also as terrorists then what will happen we can have a strong anti-terror law in this country so the objective is that we should have a law which can bring an end to the terrorism in this country and the government has assured the country that we are not going to misuse it but there are others who say that law should have been repealed just like tada and pota have been repealed why what are the criticisms against you APA that is something you need to understand from the examination point of view so let's look at some of the criticisms about this anti-terror legislation we have seen last year five prominent human rights activists were arrested under you APA we have seen jamaat-e-islami of Jammu and Kashmir banned under you APA Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front JKLF band under you APA we have also seen activists arrested and penalized under you APA so there is one contention amongst the opposition and the human rights activists that this you APA law has been overused abused misused in this country how let's look at some other criticisms number one when we say that you APA authorizes the government that you can ban an unlawful organization the first problem is with the definition how can we define what is an unlawful organization there may be organizations working amongst the tribals in this country amongst the adivasis in this country amongst the poorer sections of the society and they may also be termed as unlawful organizations and will be banned under you APA because we have seen instances where there were a certain group of individuals who were working against the construction of dams in this country and even these organizations were declared as unlawful organizations and banned we have seen human rights organizations nongovernmental organizations working amongst the poorer sections of our society they have also been banned and termed as unlawful organizations so the first problem with this act with this law is at the definition level you can't simply define what is an unlawful organization anybody voicing against the dictatorial tendencies of the government can also be termed as an unlawful organization and as such can be banned under this law that's one problem second this you APA act as I've told you before it also penalizes the membership of these unlawful organizations and terrorist organizations that means if the government is in a position to prove or if the prosecution is in a position to prove before the court of law that you are a member of these unlawful organizations or these terrorist organizations you can also be penalized but what defines the man worship of these organizations let's say for example I'm a researcher when I'm conducting a research on let's say the separatists and Jammu and Kashmir or the Maoist in the Maxell affected areas in this country I may also need the possession of some books or literature of these organizations because without the literature without their books I may not be in a position to understand what their ideology is because Maoist for example they want the overthrow of the state they want the state to wither away they want the rule of the people to be imposed in this country and not the rule of the corporates in this country so if I'm conducting research on Maoist or Naxalites I need to first read their literature I need to first read what their ideology is all about but the law states if I am in possession of books or literature about these unlawful organizations about these terrorist organizations that also means that I'm a member of these organizations and if I'm the member of these organizations I will be penalized under unlawful activities Prevention Act similarly I want to conduct more research about Maoist or the separatists and I'm attending their meetings so that I can get to know what their leaders talked about or what is their ideology or how they communicate to their masses but if I'm attending meetings of these unlawful organizations or these terrorist organizations under you APA it would amount to me being the member of such organizations and I will be penalized that is how GN Saibaba the professor of a university and others have been arrested because it is alleged that since they contained literature they possessed literature and books about these unlawful organizations sometimes attended the meetings of these unlawful organizations as well that is why they are the members of such organizations and therefore should be penalized and there is another problem with this law and that deals with section 43 D Clause 5 of this unlawful activities Prevention Act now we know that under criminal justice system in this country the Supreme Court way back in nineteen seventy said jail is only an exception bail is a norm that means as much as possible it release individuals on bail if I am an accused in a particular case but I cannot threaten the witnesses I'm not in a position to run away from this country I'm not in a position to tamper with the evidence or to threaten the witnesses I should not be kept in the jail but I should be released on bail because jail is an exception bail is the norm if this individual can threaten the witnesses can tamper with the evidence can run away from this country you should put these individuals in jail but others should be released on bail because the golden rule of criminal justice system in this country is you are innocent until proven otherwise you are innocent until proven guilty but according to this section under you APA if the police is in a position to present before the court a case diary or a charge sheet and through this case diary or a charge sheet prima facie at the face of it it is assumed that yes I am guilty then what the court can do court can refuse me a bill what am I trying to say unlawful activities Prevention Act this bill has been amended by the lok sabha amidst the opposition walkout now if this bill is passed by Raja Sabha as well ultimately what will happen the government will be authorized that you can even designate individuals as terrorists clear the government sources say that such a provision exists even in Pakistan even in United States even at the United Nations so we should also change our law so that we can designate individuals as also terrorists so now an individual can be designated as a terrorist unlawful organizations can be banned terrorist organizations can be banned members of such organizations can also be banned and penalized but the real question is about the law itself there are people who are advocating that just like tada and pota you APA should also be why one problem with this law is that the definition of unlawful organizations is very weak that we have discussed second contentious issue is how do we define who are the members of these unlawful organizations and terrorist organizations that is something that we have discussed third is related to bail provision under unlawful activities Prevention Act there is a golden rule in criminal justice system in India that as much as possible if there is a trial which is pending release individuals on bail but if these individuals are threat to society they have the potential to tamper with the evidence they have the potential to run away from this country keep such individuals inside jail don't grant them bill but now there is another provision in you APA which says that if the police presents a case diary or a charge sheet before the judiciary and through this case dydy or charge sheet prime FSI it is made out that there is a strong case against an accused then bail shall be denied but do you know what the problem is case diary is the version of the police and as such is the version of the state charge sheet also is the version of the police and as such is the version of the state where is the version of an accused that means you are denying this individual a bail just because he is accused by the state and the law states that 180 days are granted to the police within these 180 days charge sheet is to be filed by the police and this period can also be extended at the court orders so basically for six months you can beat in an individual even on flimsy grounds if this individual is viewed by the state as a member of an unlawful organization or a terrorist organization that is why human rights organizations activists are saying that this is a law which tries to curb meaningful dissent in democracy and in democracy dissent is always important that's what Walter said I disagree with what you see but I will defend till death your right to say it so in a democracy people should have the right to disagree with the government people should have the right to disagree with political parties and this disagreement is health dissent is health of a democracy and this UAP a law is enacted to stifle independent thinking to stifle dissent in this country that is why this law should be repealed that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article now let's look at another newspaper article on the same page number 12 boxer bill has been cleared this bill has been cleared by the Raja Sabha now it will go to Lok Sabha and in all likelihood looks above will pass this bill and then it will be sent to the president for his assent for his signature and then this bill will become a law this law was passed for the first time in the year 2012 then it was amended in 2016 as well now further amendments have been made in 2019 let's look at what these amendments are and what is it that you need to understand from this newspaper article for the Civil Services Examination first and foremost you need to understand that this parcel is a gender neutral law what does that mean that means this law punishes those offenders who are guilty of committing sexual violence against children and who are these children anybody less than the age of 18 so that means regardless of the gender of the children anybody less than the age of 18 if sexual offences had been committed against them punishments will be given these offenders will be booked under pox oh and what is pox Oh protection of children from Sexual Offences Act now what are these changes number one if you look at there are offenses which are referred to as penetrative sexual assault and there are some offenses which are referred to as aggravated sexual assault let's look at the difference initially if an offender was guilty of penetrative sexual-assault the punishment to this individual was seven years now because of the changes in this law if this law is given approval by the president what will happen if somebody is guilty of penetrative sexual assault now the punishment would be ten years that means the punishment has been enhanced one important thing if the offender has committed sexual assault penetrative sexual assault against a child who is less than 16 years of age now the punishment will be 20 years or life imprisonment along with the fine that means what is the major difference between the bakso Act of 2012 when it was amended in 2016 and the current changes the punishment have been enhanced so initially it was seven years now it is ten years and somebody committing penetrative sexual assault against a child less than the age of sixteen twenty years or life imprisonment but what is this aggravated sexual assault when does a sexual assault become aggravated if this sexual assault is committed by a police officer it becomes aggravated if the sexual assault is committed by the members of the Armed Forces it becomes aggravated if this sexual assault is committed by a public servant if this sexual assault is committed by the relative of the child it becomes aggravated and now two more aggravated sexual assault have been added to this bill and what are these if this sexual assault results in the death of the child and if this agree weighted sexual assault penetrative sexual assault is conducted or carried out during and natural calamity and in such cases the punishment has been enhanced even death penalty can be imposed upon the convicts so basically what we are trying to understand here is that there is one important piece of legislation which tries to protect our children and who are these children below the age of 18 from sexual assault from sexual offenses and for that the punishments have now been enhanced there is a difference between penetrators sexual assault and aggravated sexual assault and aggravated sexual assault now the punishment has been enhanced even death sentence can be prescribed for those who are committing these aggravated penetrative sexual assaults that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article now let's look at another news article on page number 1 of the Delhi edition of the Hindu opposition wants select panel scrutiny of key bills or key legislations if you read newspapers or you've watched television debates there was a for or when MP from Bhopal Saad reproducing tacos she said that I have not been elected to clean the toilets or clean your drains in one way she was absolutely right what is the job of a legislator the job of a legislator is to enact laws forbid ELISA Dirk Pawnee drainage we have local governments panchayati raj institutions municipalities for example so you need to understand the principle the role played by a legislator whether whether we are talking about MLA or we are talking about a member of the Parliament of Lok Sabha Raja Sabha the principle objective of such legislators is to enact laws make laws for this country but what we have seen here is that there are close to 790 MPs in Parliament 545 and looks about 245 in Raja Sabha 790 MPs is it remotely possible for all these MPs to come together dissect scrutinize debate every single bill pending in the parliament it is remotely not possible because the burden on the legislators would be huge the quality of debate would reduce and ultimately the law which is passed by these members would be full of loopholes so basically what I'm trying to say is that number one Parliament is not always in session we have a budget session than we have a one sensation then we have a winter session so Parliament is not always in session and at the same time there is an increased need of more and more legislations more and more laws in this country but it is not remotely possible that all these 790 MPs would come together dissect scrutinize debate every single piece of legislation in this country this is where the role of parliamentary committees become very very important and broadly we have two such committees one is Select Committee the other is joined parliamentary committee let's say for example there is a bill a and this bill is pending in Raja Sabha these select committees or these committees of the Indian Parliament they have emerged as mini Parliament's how instead of all the parliamentarians coming together and debating let's say DNA technology bill or you APA bill or RTI bill instead of all these MPs coming together and debating dissecting and scrutinizing these bills there is a committee constituted by the speaker the select group of individuals the select group of members of the Parliament they come together a group is formed a committee is formed and this committee is now tasked with scrutinizing this particular bill that means for DNA technology bill there will be one committee for Aadhaar bill there will be one committee for RTI bill there will be another committee and as such this mini parliament this select group of MPs they will come together and scrutinize this bill with greater clarity and greater in-depth analysis and that is when after the report of these committees what will happen the laws would be meaningful the laws would be with less and less loopholes that means to enact beautiful strong effective laws in this country we need more and more bills being referred to select committees or joined parliamentary committees but what is the difference between the two if a bill is pending in the Rajya Sabha members of the Select Committee would only be from Raja Sabha if the bill is pending in Lok Sabha the members of the Select Committee would only be from Lok Sabha but in joint parliamentary committee members would be both from Lok Sabha as well as Raja Sabha but how are these members elected or appointed they are appointed by the speaker but based on proportional representation system and what is this proportional representation system let's say for example for this particular bill we need to constitute a select committee in this case what will happen a select committee will be constituted let's assume the number of members of the Select Committee is 31 all these members will have to be elected based on proportional representation system which means if BJP has 52 percent of the MPs in Lok Sabha 52 percent of these 31 would be members of the BJP 10 percent of the members of this committee would be from party B would be from party C so on and so forth that means in these committees of the Indian Parliament all parties get representation due to their proportion in proportion to their representation they would get representation in these select committees and joint parliamentary committees but the beautiful thing about these parliamentary committees is this number one no whip is issued you would know that there is a controversy or there was a controversy till recently about the whips to be issued for the Congress MLAs by the Congress party in Karnataka and if any political person if any member of the parliament violate these whips they can be disqualified under anti-defection law as well but if I am from the Congress party and I am part of a select committee and this select committee is looking into the RTI Amendment the amendments to the RTI bill when I am participating in the debates and the discussions inside the Select Committee no whip can be assured against me that means here nonpartisan Outlook takes a priority that means even if you are members from BJP Congress BJ samajwadi party maya Vitesse party even if you are members of various political parties but when you are debating inside the select committee meetings you are nonpartisan because VIP cannot be issued on top of that these parliamentary committees always work how we have seen the repeated disruptions in Parliament not just this time but previously as well there was a time when a member of the Parliament from Andhra Pradesh the undivided Andhra Pradesh he entered into Lok Sabha with a pepper spray gun and sprayed pepper on the members of the Parliament he came to be known as the pepper spray MP we have seen tables are thrown at each other the mics other equipments are thrown at each other so there is chaos pandemonium inside the Parliament on one hand Parliament is not functioning but on the other hand these parliamentary committees they work there have been instances newspaper reports where members belonging to the opposition they agree with the government where the government members they agree with the opposition so basically if we look at the meetings of these parliamentary committees they work in a nonpartisan manner and they work for the national interests they work for the development and the prosperity of this country that is why more and more bills should be referred to these select committees more and more bills should be referred to these parliamentary committees so that there is more debate so that there is better scrutiny of these bills so that a better law is made at the end of the day unfortunately what is happening in the 14th Lok Sabha the number of bills which were referred to the parliamentary committees the percentage was 60 in the 15th Lok Sabha the number of the bills are referred to these committees the percentage was 71 but if he look as look at sixteenth looks about the percentage was only 25 percent that means the bills are getting passed by the Parliament without any debate without any discussion without any scrutiny and ultimately what we are doing we are bypassing Parliament we are making Parliament redundant laws should be passed in this country but not with the brute majority of the government but through consensus through debate through discussion through scrutiny and that is why opposition they have come together and they want more and more bills should be referred to these parliamentary committees select committees join parliamentary committees so that at the end of the day the law is passed but with clarity with purpose and with thought which reminds me of Edmund Burke a a philosopher writer or rate politician as well and this is a court that you can use in your answer and I will be providing you a means based question at the end of this discussion and this is a court that you can use their Parliament is not a congress of ambassadors from different and hostile interests which interest each must maintain as an agent and as an advocate against other agents and other advocates but Parliament is a deliberative assembly of one nation with one interest that of the whole we're not local purposes not local prejudices or to guide but the general good resulting from the general reason of the whole so you may be a member from Bhopal or you may be a member from South Bengaluru but when you are inside the Parliament you are the member of the Parliament representing the nation so you may not be a member of the Bristol but he is a member of the Parliament that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article now let's look at another news on page number one of the Delhi edition of the hindu aj bulla to be the new home secretary now such a question can never be asked by the UPSC who is the Home Secretary of India no but the process is important how Home Secretary is appointed for that we have eight cabinet committees of the Union executive or the union cabinet eight cabinet committees are there initially the number was six now two more have been added so we have eight cabinet committees one such cabinet committee is a point mence Committee of the cabinet and all the important appointments are cleared by this appointments Committee of the cabinet it is headed by the Prime Minister and the other member of this panel is the Minister of Home Affairs so all the appointments at the level of joint secretary and above they are to be approved by the appointments committee of the cabinet and this is where this newspaper article becomes important so if tomorrow there is a question on what is the role of appointments committee of the cabinet or Home Secretary is appointed by or on the basis of the recommendation of which of the following committee so for that you need to understand the role of appointments committee of the cabinet that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article now let's look at another news on page number 8 Andhra Pradesh passes bill on 75% quota for local youth I know there would be a question on your mind is this constitutional because there can be no discrimination on the grounds of residence for example but this is something which is constitutional and I will tell you how we have article 16 of the Constitution of India which talks about equality of opportunity in public employment and what is public employment government jobs so the state cannot discriminate when it provides public employment but here we are talking about private employment we are not talking about state employment or public employment that's difference number one second article 16 says there shall be equality of opportunity in public employment and the state shall not discriminate only on the grounds of religion race caste sex place of birth descent as well as residence when residents cannot be a ground of discrimination under article 16 how can 75% for quota for local youth be declared constitutional because the Andhra Pradesh government is not trying to discriminate on the grounds of residence but it is trying to discriminate on the grounds of domicile and who is a domicile of Karnataka for example because in 2014 a similar type of proposal was there from this Siddaramaiah government as well said that Amaya was the Chief Minister of Karnataka at that point in time the state can discriminate on the grounds of domicile and what does domicile residents plus intention to steal and what is this intention to stay let's say for example there is somebody was born in Delhi then he migrated to Karnataka he studied his tenth from Karnataka 12th from Karnataka engineering as well as from Karnataka and is also doing job in Karnataka that means now Karnataka is as domicile because he resides in Karnataka and it is his intention to stay in Karnataka permanently and as per the Karnataka domicile rules if anybody stays in Karnataka for 15 years he or she would be eligible as the domicile certificate for the domicile certificate and as such for domiciles there can be reservation and Supreme Court has said in multiple judicial verdicts that not more than 50% jobs should be reserved for domiciles so domicile can be a basis for reservation can be a basis for discrimination but not only residents and what is the difference between domicile and residents domicile is residents plus intention to stay that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article now let us look at some of the editorials and columns from today's newspaper first up having the last word on population control on July 11 mr. Jagdish Ratan Ani writes that on world population day a union minister in his tweet said that there is population explosion in this country that is why we need to control population baba ramdev said if there is a family which has more than two children then third child fourth child fifth child the pride of right word should be deprived to contest elections for example this led to a hilarious statement by Hyderabad MP Asaduddin Owaisi who remarked that if such a bill or such a proposal becomes a law then prime minister of this country would be ineligible to hold the office because he's the third child of his parents but be that as it may this column particularly talks about that we should not be looking at population in terms of population control but we should be looking at population from the prism of choices and services rather than control how let's have an understanding on this column is there population explosion in this country no why because if we look at the economic survey 2018-2019 the economic survey says that India is all set to witness a sharp slowdown in population that means we are trying to create a hysteria that there is population explosion in this country but on ground if we look at economic survey says that there is going to be a sharp slowdown in our population and by 2030 the states will be transitioning into aging societies that's number one number two if you look at Japan Japan is considered to be an aging Society and if you look at India we are talking about a concept called demographic dividend that means the majority of our population is below the age of 25 more than 50 percent of our population below the age of 35 these are the people who are going to be tomorrow's job seekers as well as job enablers job creators as well so for the first time we have population which is on our positive side Boston Consulting Group came out with a study of workforce availability in the world it came out with a grim focus saying that there would be an acute shortage of working people across the world including China but for the first time in would be at an advantage so for the first time we could convert our numbers to an advantage but there is a catch here the men we produce the women we produce must be good at their work because the world requires professionals not hackers we would require plumber's we would require electricians we would require AI professionals artificial intelligence professionals as well so that is why we have to impart skill development training to our youth so that tomorrow they can be job seekers enablers creators as well but on the other hand when we are talking about reaping the benefits of demographic dividend we should not be talking about population control according to the author but even then how can we ensure that the population explosion will not take place for that the analysis is that with the social development with the educational development with the economic development of our society the population is bound to come down people are looking at one child norm people are looking at we don't need more than two children because we can't sustain them we can't sustain such a large family in times of high inflation and global uncertainty so those who are socially educationally and economically advanced they make a conscious decision of keeping their family size minimum but where do we see more family members in lower strata of the society and for multiple reasons so why is it that amongst the lower strata of our society the family size is large as compared to the urban India or as compared to those who are socially educationally and economically advanced it is because of number one infant mortality rate there's a poor family they're planning kids and a child is born then another child is born another child is born why because they are not sure how many children will survive so it is because of this reason that there is a larger family size when it comes to those who are poor second reason again is the preference for male child that is another cause of increased family signs third is the argument given by Marxists for example that if we have more members in our family that means more hands would be available so that these more hands can help the family in agriculture in other economic activities that means for economic reasons so that more children more economy more benefit to the family for this reason family size is also large fourth it also depends on lack of contraceptives for example in rural areas or in Bharat as we call there is still some skepticism towards these contraceptives and if a member of the family is so-called pot with contraceptives his image in the family is Lobert and that is why they don't use contraceptive and that is how they are not in a position to take the benefits of these contraceptive measures and reasons can be different as well for example in 1960s in United States of America there was a power cut for eight hours and nine months later there was a huge jump in child births so a power cut for eight hours can be linked to population growth in a particular country and that happens in India as well the poor in this country may not have sufficient means of entertainment in this country and that is how the only way to entertain themselves according to various reports is by having sexual relationship with their partner without the use of contraceptives and that is how the population grows so this column basically focuses upon that we should not be looking at population from the prism of population control but we should be looking at how we can offer choices and services to the people services such as insurance services such as better maternal care services such as better prenatal care services such as nutrition for the pregnant mother for the lactating mother so that if a healthy child is born if a child is given nutritional food for up to a point then we can convert these healthy children into productive workforce environment in this country population control is something that Sanjay Gandhi prescribed during the time of the emergency when men were forcibly taken to the hospitals and then nurse Bundy was carried out and let me tell you one thing we have a concept called TFR total fertility rate what is this TFR TFR is the average number of children that will be born to a woman during her lifetime that is total fertility rate and if this TFR is 2.1 that is what we call the replacement level and the replacement level below this line population begins to decline there is a beautiful point mention in this article it says that there are 23 states and union territories in this country including all the states in the South India where fertility below the replacement level of 2.1 has already taken place so that means the population is bound to come down so we should not be looking at population explosion that is why this phrase population control should not be used there should be a clear understanding that offering choices and services rather than outright state control works best that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article there is another important editorial under meaning RTI now if we look at RTI RTI is one of the principal tool of transparency in this country what is transparency whatever is inside if it is visible outside that means we are talking about a transparent system but so far as government is concerned how can we define transparency the government takes lots of decisions and these decisions are taken on the basis of some facts on the basis of some data on the basis of some information clear if this is known to us then we can understand whether these decisions taken by the government or right or wrong access to this fact or data or information is very crucial to understand transparent working of the government and that is how a beautiful law was enacted by the Parliament in the year 2005 called Right to Information Act under this RTI every public authority every government body has to designate pios public information officers and if you need any information all you have to do file an RTI application and this Pio will furnish you these facts data and information yes there are some exceptions for example information related to national security obviously you can't ask information related to deeply personal things that you have that is something that you can't ask information that will serve no public purpose that is something that you cannot seek using an RTI application but it is because of this RTI that massive scams have been unearthed and in this country for example coal scam Commonwealth Games can Adarsh housing society scam all these important scams have been unearthed using RTI and now there is an allegation that this RTI this beautiful piece of legislation is being undermined by the government by bringing in amendments what are these amendments let's have a look at that let's say for example this is a State Information Commission and at the center we have a Central Information Commission that means all states will have State Information Commission's Center will have its own Central Information Commission and the Central Information Commission would have chief Information Commissioner and information commissioners the law states that these members should be given security of tenure that means they will retire at the age of 65 their salary emoluments allowances will be same as that of the members of the Election Commission of India and their salary is equal to the judges of the Supreme Court this was something which is fixed which is according to the law now what the government is trying to do the government is trying to bring in the law so that what is the tenure of Central Information Commissioner or Chief Information Commissioner and the information commissioners will be determined by the government that means there will be no security of tenure that tenure shall be determined by the government and the salary allowances emoluments will also be determined by the government what is the rationale behind this the government says look Central Information Commission is a statutory body provided by the act of the Parliament under RTI Act of 2005 but Election Commission of India is a constitutional body to rationalize various authorities in this country we can't equate a statutory body with Election Commission of India with a constitutional body that is why these changes have been prescribed that is why these changes have been proposed but the critics argue that the reasons are different how can we ensure that an authority a is working without any outside influence outside pressure or political pressure two things are required financial independence and security of tenure this security of tenure that a chief information commissioner would have a tenure t he attains the age of 65 years that is being snatched this important feature of Independence that your salary will be same as that of the Election Commissioners of the Chief Election Commissioner this is also being snatched and the critics argue that the government is doing this because if there is a chief information commissioner who will go against the government of the day and who will effectively implement the RTI Act the government can curb his tenure can curtail his tenure can curb his salary as well and that is how these members of the Central Information Commission would toe the line of the government there was no need to bring in these amendments when there was no need to bring in these amendments and now you're bringing these amendments it is bound to be viewed with suspicion that means there is no fundamental need to make all these changes but if you want to make these changes that means there is something hideous involved into this and that is why there is a demand from political parties opposition that this RTI amendment bill should referred to the select committee of the Parliament and then it should be deliberated discussed dissected and scrutinized and then the report of the committee should be upheld by the government but one important point which I missed when we discussed the role of the select committees of the Parliament is that their report is not binding on the Parliament Parliament may accept that report Parliament may reject that report but ultimately that report provides a solid piece of data information and logic for the Parliament to act upon that is what you need to understand regarding this newspaper editorial now let's look at another column on page number 10 shifting strategic concerns written by Sir Robert dolet Singh a fellow at the Center for Policy and research we know the background of this India and Pakistan separated at birth and there is a dispute between the two countries called the dispute of Kashmir although the government of India says it is not a dispute it is an outstanding issue between India and Pakistan and what is the difference between a dispute and an outstanding issue between India and Pakistan the Government of India says that the only outstanding issue on the state of Jammu and Kashmir is that the part of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan should also be returned to India clear and it has been a consistent policy of the Government of India that there should be no interference in India's internal matter which is Kashmir in 1948 Pandit Nehru the then Prime Minister of India took this matter to United Nations and Kashmir issue was internationalized after that we saw the 1971 war where Pakistan was defeated Pakistan got split into two and Bangladesh emerged as an independent country and then at the end of that war Shimla agreement was signed and according to Shimla agreement Jammu and Kashmir is not a dispute it is an outstanding issue between India and Pakistan which is to be resolved bilaterally that means there should be no international intervention same was reiterated in 1999 when Lahore declaration was signed between India and Pakistan the then Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee said that we are going to resolve Jammu and Kashmir but bilaterally there should be no international mediation or arbitration u.s. president donald trump while interacting with the media when pakistani prime minister imran khan was on a visit to united states he remarked that prime minister modi wanted mediation from united states on Kashmir so basically he alleged that Prime Minister Modi spoke with President Trump and asked President Trump if he could mediate between India and Pakistan on this Kashmir assure Kashmir dispute but India has rejected this Indian said that no such offer was made no such discussion to place but be that as it may what this column basically talks about it's a very beautiful column very interesting column but it is more important for those who have political science and international relations as their optional not much relevant for your GS but still I'm going to touch upon important areas here this column says that India thinks that we have a stronger position as compared to Pakistan Pakistan also thinks the same how India thinks that we have a stronger position because of its economy because of the mandate that Prime Minister Modi got in 2014 as well as in 2008 19 and Pakistan thinks that we have an upper hand because of its strategic location and this strategic location is of much much important significance if you look at immediately after India got independence India had a foreign policy of non-alignment that means at that point in time there were two world powers two super powers of the world United States and USSR India decided not to align with any of these powers and instead shorted out an independent foreign policy based on the principles of non-alignment Pakistan on the other hand militarily aligned with the United States of America and it is to be said that at the time of the Bangladesh duration war in 1971 the USS 7th fleet of US Navy came closer to Bay of Bengal and try to aid and help the Pakistan it was the dramatic beautiful intervention by the Russians at that time that watered and that controlled the United States involvement in the indo-pakistan war but Pakistan has been an important player so far as United States scheme of things is concerned when 9/11 attack took place United States launched war on terror and Pakistan was an important ally in that war on terror and Pakistan is required by two important global superpowers today United States as well as China China purely because of economics so if we look at belt and Road initiative china-pakistan economic corridor for these massive investments Pakistan is needed a helpful friendly Pakistan is needed for China and China and Pakistan they are all-weather friends and it is also alleged that China supports Pakistan primarily to antagonize India or to keep India at be united states also require the help of Pakistan because of Afghanistan United States is exiting from Afghanistan and for peace in the region for stability in Afghanistan Pakistan is very very important ally for United States and it is true Pakistan's help that Taliban has come on board there are talks between Taliban and United States whether at Qatar or any other location and Pakistan has been instrumental in bringing Taliban on the negotiating table so that talks can be conducted and peace can be restored to the region that is why Pakistan is very important for United States there is one important thing in India we say India or Indian state has an army in Pakistan we say Pakistani army has a state of Pakistan care and Pakistani establishment military as stablishment is based in Rawalpindi the headquarters of the Pakistan Army according to this column both United States and China they would want civilian government in place in Pakistan because for most much of its history Pakistan has been governed and administered and ruled by military dictators be it or you can Yahya Khan zia-ul-haq pervez musharraf for much of its history Pakistan has been ruled and administered and governed by the military dictators but not in India but this column talks about that civilian government is required in Pakistan a fruitful strong civilian government but at the same time a strong Rawal Pindi and at the same time an elite class in Pakistan which has a westward thinking or a westward point-of-view english-speaking elites so that they can call for better ties with European countries and United States of America and it is this beautiful mix of strong Rawal Pindi a good responsible stable political government civilian government in Pakistan and a westward looking elite in Pakistan and for India this column talks about something very important this column says that if US mediation is needed US mediation should be needed where so that United States can mediate pressurize Pakistan that you should stop cross-border infiltration into Jammu and Kashmir you should stop this proxy war that you have launched against India that means mediation is not required to resolve the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan if at all India seeks mediation it should seek mediation so that US can pressurize Pakistan and stop cross-border infiltration into the Indian side of Jammu and Kashmir that is what this newspaper article is all about now let's look at another column on page number 11 there is a policy called draft national education policy it's only a draft it has not been finalized yet this column particularly talks about one aspect of this draft related to mid education and this article heavily criticizes this draft national education policy on medical education how according to this draft equity is required justice is required but where when you are enrolling doctors and when you are providing access to patients in accessing these medical facilities in both these matters in enrollment for doctors and access to medical education and medical equipments equity and justice is the need of the other but this draft national education policy on medical education the author says is confusing how is it confusing number one the draft says that fees whether of government or public medical colleges or private medical colleges it should be decided by the institution itself that means this is one thing that this draft talks about fees should be decided by the institution itself but on the other hand the same draft talks about that the fees should be lowered as well both are contradictory because why would private educational institutions medical colleges lower their fee that's number one the draft says that all these medical institutions should be not-for-profit but we know one of the biggest generator as well as consumer of black money in this country are these medical educational institutions for example if a rich individual has to seek admission for his son or daughter in a medical college he has to pay one crore rupees in a top medical college in India but this one crore rupee partly in cash there is another problem in the draft although this is only a draft it is not a policy but those are writing mains examination this year it can be an important question for your examination but for those who are writing prelims in 2020 just understand what this issue is all about as and when the changes are made as and when this policy is given a final shape then we will have an elaborate discussion on this there is one examination for entrance to medical college just called neat now there is another examination proposed called national exit test unless and until all these MBBS students they pass this National exit test they cannot enroll in a PG course they cannot practice their profession as well so this national exists test is sought to be made mandatory now but there is a problem with this National exit test what if for example I am an MBTA student I failed in this National exit test does that mean my five years in a Medical College go waste or am I eligible for a retest if I am eligible for a retest can a student be expected to take the exit examination multiple times then are all medical colleges across the country of the same standard because in absence of a same standard you cannot ensure a level playing field that means sealing the fate of a student once and for all through this exit test it does not appear to be just that is one argument of the author the author also talks about that we have to tackle high level of centralization what is it let's say for example more and more doctors are based out of those locations where the people have the tendency to pee that means in the metros in the urban areas where people have the potential to pay hefty fee there is a high concentration and centralization of doctors what about rural India what about the rural areas in this country that is something that our draft policy should tackle this author also says that we have debased MBBS degree to such a level that today no meaningful employment opportunity is available for an MBBS graduate and this MBBS degree has been considered only as a requirement to apply in a PG course that means if we look at MBBS students in this country graduates in this country their social stature has degraded to a large extent primarily because no meaningful employment opportunity exists for them so unless and until you are a PG or you are a DM or you have a specialization you are not provided good opportunity to work in top hospitals or in any Hospital in this country that means unless and until you have a PG degree or a DM degree or a specialization no meaningful employment opportunity exists for you and that is why we are seeing multiple PG courses have been started without any clear agenda without any clear rationale that is something that draft national education policy should look upon that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article now let's look at another important column on page number 11 measles measles is basically an infection caused by virus and it is a highly infectious disease but Sri Lanka has become free of viral infection that too at a time when we have seen that there is a surge of or 300% increase in the measles cases in different parts of the world including in European countries so how is it that Sri Lanka could become free of viral infection such as measles and what are the lessons for India but first how can we declare a country as free from measles we can declare a country as free from measles if there is no reported transmission of this virus for three years and since 2016 no such case of measles infection or virus has been reported in Sri Lanka that is why Sri Lanka has been declared as free from this viral infection there are two doses required of vaccination so that we can prevent measles although there is no specific cure available against measles but we can prevent it how can we prevent it by having two doses of vaccination first let's say when the child completes nine months or 12 months and then at two years or three years for example two doses of vaccination is to be prescribed that's what we call MMR vaccine measles mumps and rubella rubella is a virus what about other countries their first dose is successful that means they cater to the majority of the children population when it comes to the first dose but when it comes to the second dose the percentage is less for others it is 67% at the second dose that means only 67% target is made both these doses the coverage in Sri Lanka has been above 95% that means so far as Sri Lanka is concerned their immunization program has worked to such a level that at Birth the dose levels they have been in a position to target and cover the majority of their children population this is a lesson for other countries including European countries that if you have to eradicate this viral infection from your societies then you should follow the Sri Lankan mode that is what you need to understand from this newspaper article let's look at the prelims based question number one the human capital index is released by which of the following it's released by the World Bank consider the following statements with respect to RTI PIOs the persons of Indian origin card holders they can ask for information under RTI correct the right to seek information from a public authorities absolute no the information can be denied to you if it does not serve any meaningful public purpose if it deals with matters related to national security so on and so forth political parties and supreme court come under the ambit of RTI no they don't come under the ambit of RTI so which of the above statements are correct a1 only global innovation index is released by in seed and WIPO world intellectual property organization problems question 2019 with reference to Swadeshi movement consider the following statements it contributed to the revival of the indigenous artisan crafts and industries yes the National Council of education was established as a part of Swadeshi movement correct both the statements are correct census 2011 question because we discussed population today Meghalaya has registered highest decadal growth rate amongst all the states and union territories no yes amongst the state it has recorded the highest decadal growth but amongst the union territories we have seen it is dada and Nagar Haveli with fifty five point five percent decadal growth rate a women enumerator was mascot of 2011 census correct Konoe district in Kerala has higher sex ratio in India amongst the district no this statement is wrong so which of the above statements are incorrect 1 & 3 both these statements are incorrect Mahe in Puducherry has the highest sex ratio in India males base question parliamentary committees scrutinize legislative and executive actions and operate as consensus building platforms they must be strengthened comment please write your answers in the comment section and we shall evaluate them thank you for being with us have a great day

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