Flower of Capitalism: Cultural Logic of South Korea Advertising

Flower of Capitalism: Cultural Logic of South Korea Advertising



hi good evening thank you for coming to flower of capitalism's cultural logic of South Korean advertising my name is loose Lanza I'm in the program officer for Korean Studies here i'd like to introduce our speaker dr. olga federico she is the assistant professor and faculty fellow at the Department of East Asian Studies at New York University she received her PhD from the East Asian Studies department of the university of toronto in november two thousand twelve and her articles appear in the korean popular cultural reader and in the feminist media studies she is currently working on a book manuscript entitled flower of capitalism South Korean advertising at a crossroads her research interests cover anthropology of media including advertising and digital media consumer movements and consumer citizenship contemporary capitalism and local Neil liberalism's she also holds an MBA from yonsei university in Seoul South Korea and a bachelors in Korean Studies from Moscow State University in Russia please welcome dr. federico thank you for the introduction and thank you for having me so my presentation is based on the book I'm working on and the book itself is about contests around advertising in South Korea and the first decade of the 21st century but looking at losses abstract for my talk which kind of revised as that that I probably should live the contests side for the moment and focus on what is special about South Korean advertising and that's kind of the focus of my talk today and if you interested in contests that be happy to bring it up for Q&A okay so I will begin by explaining what i mean by cultural logic of advertising and what I see as the cultural logic of sales crane headed advertising and then i will give you three extended examples of how this cultural logic manifests in contemporary korea and those three examples will be the main part of the talk okay so flower of capitalism or tab enjoy a quote for those of you who speak Korean it's a cliche metaphor for advertising in South Korea and this metaphor sneaks into articles about advertising boosts appreciative and critical also floral patterns are surprisingly common on conference brochures on advertising related conferences and other publications first I registered this flower of capitalism metaphor when puzzling over a cover of this book and I hope you could see it from there it's decorated my little flowers smokin hot curry national flower and the book was presented to me by one of the authors profession and soap and I was a little bit surprised because otherwise it's actually pretty serious book on Korean advertising so I asked why those flowers in the cover and his quite cause it to symbol like as a symbol of Korean s mogan crockery national flower and he said yes but also because advertising is a flower of capitalism and I told him I never heard of that and at that point he was surprised because he assumed it's an international metaphor for advertising and he actually believed that it was coined by some North American scholar so for English speakers flow of capitalism is likely to evoke negative connotations in English flower of capitalism is usually reserved for war economic crisis financial speculations and other highly problematic effects of capitalism in Korea to cause I'm saying flower off is basically to point how it is a crucial part of a particular phenomenon and generally to express appreciation for both that part and the phenomenon itself so it's kind of like a flower as a combination in a life of a plant so when I was researching this expression an example I came up came up with election elections at the flower of democracy so advertising the flower of capitalism I will specify the connotations of this metaphor flow of capitalism through a short article which was written by Professor Park Yuchun of prestigious Yonsei University and this article came out in a children's edition of a national daily atomic bomb so the article goes advertising is called the flower of capitalism advertising is as common in our surroundings as air or water after the industrial revolution in the United States automobiles became as produced and the advertising industry developed greatly the financial support that private newspapers and private broadcasters receive is also precisely from advertising radical proceeds to give an example of advertising to which I will get in a second for now I'd like you to notice how in this article advertising's commercial functions are completely ignored even though the right dimensions the Industrial Revolution and transition to mass production nothing is said about how advertising is created and circulated to sell commodities media dependence and advertising is presented as a public service that advertising performs not as a for-profit use of media typical of many other cells clean popular cultural texts about advertising the article contains not a single trace of caution against advertising just ego appreciation and remember that this article is written for children earlier my research I was quite incredulous about such unreserved praises for advertising and they are also to be found in advertising museum and popular books about advertising definitely in blogosphere after all the mainstream of South Korean advertising that's a snapshot of it is not that different from advertising everywhere South Korean advertising attempts to manipulate desires it heavily relies on sex appeal it plays on on securities and anxieties so it's the usual advertising that you know from your own everyday experience so my first impulse was to dismiss those flowery praises for advertising as unsettled propaganda by the advertising industry particularly ominous when directed towards children as in parks peace however eventually I came to a different conclusion I realized that such flowery depictions were not meant as a description of advertising as it is but rather prescription of what advertising should be so the flower of capitalism with all the positive connotations explained in parks article is an ideal held up for South Korean advertising and this ideal inspired expectations and demands which would be unthinkable in many other places as my later examples will illustrate so packed example of representative cells Korean advertising further clarifies as pro-public ideal of advertising the article continues with an example of an ad which park presents as representative of all South Korean advertising it is a 1984 corporate Ed for San young group at very simple in its execution a chose to lunch boxes and the story there is kind of told as a first-person story of someone who recalls a teacher who in difficult times always brought to lunch boxes to school to give one box to hungry students and one day teacher gave up both boxes to students saying that he's filling and well and the question on top of that that he must he must be feeling unwell but it's a good teacher is pretending to give his food to students so the article continues to press add and it presents it as an advertising in which the hundred year history of Korean advertising culminated and he also mentioned that this is commercial sorry I just wanted to say that parks appreciation for this advertising is not unique and in fact when this ad appeared it was covered in the newspapers right now you would find it in most advertising history textbook so it is considered very iconic advertising in Korean it will be familiar to many advertising observers so Park is not at all original to picket as representative of South Korean advertising and the way he praises it he points out that it had it has not a single line which says it promotes the company or its products so basically for all for most practical purposes this commercial advertising blends with public service announcements and this is what park sees as the special the praiseworthy part of this advertising so it's not an ad that brought the highest revenues for the advertiser and it's not an ad that won't international prices it's an ad that blends with public service messages so this is what i mean by cultural logic of South Korean advertising it is the common-sense ideas of what advertising is what it should be what could be expected of it the cola the cultural logic is to distinguish it from advertising instrumental logic and buy instrumental logic I mean very basic saying that advertising is made to sell commodities to advance interests of advertisers this instrumental logic of advertising is what critics of advertising usually target when they condemn advertising for manipulating consumers silencing critical media and so on cultural logic does not necessarily erase the commercial purposes of advertising but it creates additional expectations which might coincide or run counter to this instrumental logic so what they discovered when research in South Korean advertising is that there are certain expectations that downplay the marketing purposes of advertising and privilege advertising's potential for public service both with advertising messages Andres advertising revenues bugs article is quite representative in that regard in popular imaginaries commercial functions of advertising are often subordinated to public interests which is generally understood as interest of a middle class consumer and the times is contrasted to the interests of advertisers big companies and those tensions animate contests around advertising in Korea to it possible misunderstanding the origins of this cultural logic are not in some innate cultural traits but in concrete historical events whose outcomes resulted in the current situation so I emphasize I'm not making like confusion as more that kind of argument rather I want to say that there is specific developments with Korean advertising that resulted in these ideas that subordinate commercial advertising to ideas of public bed and I have a list of those factors I will not go into them in detail if you like I could talk about it later but just briefly it goes through them first of all the history of capitalism in Korea the way it appeared before colonial period when there were threats to Korea's independence or Nash capitalism was a braced as a nationalist project to defend Korea's independence that one big thing another thing that the way advertising was regulated many lasting institutions of advertising we're set up during tone the one who set it up to control media however the justification for those reforms where in terms of public interest and those discourses kind of stuck and those institutions continued till about two thousand eight okay so I'll just leave it at that and if you want to talk about it later i'll be happy to bring it up during Q&A so for the rest of the top i'd like to talk about how this cultural logic manifests in reality and like how can we see it and present-day korean advertising so my first example is about advertising content it is so cold humanists appetizing i already mentioned that the mainstream of South screen advertising is no more publicly minded than advertising everywhere else however it is campaigns like this 1984 lunch box that are considered most representative of South Korean advertising as I said lunch boxes when it came out to celebrate that in many newspapers and in a way it kind of inaugurated a whole sub-genre of advertising in Korea commercial advertising which abandons a commercial message which does not talk about the advertiser but instead circulates philgood sentimental messages in the name of Public Interest this sub-genre of advertising is known by different names corporate public service advertising sentimental advertising emotional advertising korean style advertising humanist advertising and simply kind advertising i generally use humanist advertising because that's how it came to my attention first but like there is no single term and generally they used they are mixed when such education is discussed in the media in the first decade of the 21st century such humanist ads were epitomized by toward people campaign by sk telecom and i'd like to show you this award-winning hero edition so the last scene was a reference to an actual incident when someone fell on fallen tracks on seoul subway and people push a train to save the person and the message is we each of us is a hero for someone so this commercial exemplifies the rules of this sub-genre it's exceptionally rather sentimental story it's audio-visual execution is pretty sentimental like let it be done by children doesn't get any more melodramatic the message itself is very soft very humanistic you encouraged to identify to feel this warmth in your heart and indeed that's kind of a reaction that this advertising gets in Korea so this is one of the examples of reactions to the set in the internet and I'll we did when I saw this ad I choked with emotions we all a hero for someone this copy tremendously touched my heart it is just images of what everyone likely had experienced in every day accompanied by one word labels but it became an ad was which we all could identify which we all could feel deeply in our hearts I remember how I would come up to TV because I heard the background music of this commercial and doing other things so this kind of reaction it's from a blog and it's quite representative of the way people talk about this advertising and when I saw it first I was again quite in disbelief because to me perhaps some cynical that way it seems a little bit over the top over a syrupy kind a bit too sentimental also the fact that it is advertising it tries to play in emotions to sell commodities kind of interfered with me being moved to this advertising like to a point of being theory yet I was unable to find any critical reactions to this and similar ads an Internet moreover I would bring them up with my Korean acquaintances and kind of try to question if any of them were kind of skeptical that it is an advertiser trying to explore the emotions basically to make a profit to make a sale and that was accused of being a jaded cynic so that's kind of not appropriate reaction for the set you're supposed to be moved and it's okay to be moved by advertising because that's kind of the genre how its produced and that's how you consume it so the point I'm making with humanist advertising for the stock is that humanist adds the ideal of commercial advertising in Korea destabilize what commercial advertising is they remain advertising only in their form but loose content that could count as advertising for most practical purposes they forget advertiser and consumption and instead talk about values humanism and everyday life in that sense such advertising becomes another popular cultural product such as soap operas and incidentally that's how it is consumed for emotional pleasures indeed one of the common phrases for humanist advertising is that it is advertising that is not advertising like in Korean Kwango sir lukien in Congo and many would propose that as ideal for advertising so you kind of get the paradox that the most ideal advertising is advertising that that's not doing what advertising is supposed to do so what are effects of roses it's hard to say something definitive about the commercial effects of such ads they are very popular with consumers and when people like when different research companies do surveys this such ads would score very high in consumer a call and consumer appreciation do they sell no one really knows like it's like similar to the rest of advertising it's really hard to identify cause and effect them pin sale effects to particular theorizing campaigns for my arguments I would like to say that what this adds definitely do they create a particular image for advertising which is quite influential it creates particular expectations for advertising it held up a pretty high ideal against the rest of Korean advertising is compared okay so now I'm moving on to what this flower of capitals my deal means for advertising practitioners advertising makers the other ones for making advertising after all and during my fieldwork I was actually quite surprised to realize that advertising producers were most taken and by this vision of advertising as committed to serve in public so in the public many of them particularly those of the younger generation but into advertising precisely because they saw it as this medium for public good and the slide I have it's of celebrity creative director Park geun-hye own and he's the guy who made that hero advertise in which I just showed you and he is quite known in Korea he's often in the media he published I think at least two books by now and I have him on the cover of his first book called advertising through the humanities and there he talks about how their code here my interest is always not in their advertising in winning the advertising festival prices but in communication with the masses with screen masses and note that both incentives for making advertise in which he considers have nothing to do with selling commodities it's either kinda artistic inspiration to win prizes or talking to come Korean masses and in his book part talks a lot how it is a common sensical thing that his ads strive towards public service messages and most Koreans would know his tremendously popular campaigns that traced awareness of issues pertaining to Korean society parks campaign for example thought that age is just a number jeans and neckties are equal then he had a campaign about first woman admitted to South Korean army and the slogan of that was acknowledge the difference but a challenge discrimination so this kind of socially engaged advertising is his signature and his campaigns are well known and well appreciated for the social consciousness so for him advertising is effectively a socially engaged art well and park he earned his celebrity status in Korea and in that sense is admittedly somewhat extreme but such sentiments are common among regular advertising makers as observed during my internship at an advertising agency in Korea in 2010 the campaign's that regular advertising makers found most meaningful would be the ones engaged with social issues / seen as helping the underdog central character one of my chapters about advertising work I call him Kim Yu jeong-ho director Kim he talked about how he poured his hard to campaign for rice snacks for one of Korea's conglomerates he was not particularly concerned about the conglomerate's profits but he sued as his way to help Korean rice farmers whose economic struggles a notorious in Korea so he wanted to make a campaign well so lots of those rice snacks are sold so that a lot of rice has bought from Korean farmers and they live a little bit better so he's so advertising is a way to solve social problems in Korea not just to sell commodities and predictably advertisers advertising advertising companies are not always sympathetic with such flagrant neglect for the commodity characteristically the campaign that Pagani on this guy was proud most failed to sell okay and unlike to play it for you so the end of the narration that year one candle lightened up the world brightly all thought it was impossible impossible as nothing so this was an ad meant for i did this but i did is refused to buy it and did not stop park from sharing this commercial online and mention his book and when i was doing my research in 2010 and probably one of the easiest ads to find in korea and in fact korean netizens critique adidas for being so narrow-minded and not buying this advertising so this is an example of how parks romantic vision of advertising is a means of communication with the masses clashed with advertising functions as a sales tool as i mentioned Park has earned his celebrity status in Korea and generally he is able to produce and sell advertising which is somewhat controversial for regular advertising me it's always a struggle they often complain about how they would very much like to make socially engaged creative advertising but Korean advertises a zero so narrow-minded it's impossible they do find like little openings when they could incorporate messages a same car important for crane public to hear and I don't know if you notice poster for the stop it had this commercial for Sojo add and that ad is actually made by female creatives who saw themselves as fighting Korean patriarchy by portraying active female sexuality and like when I saw it first I was like thought that it's a regular kind of sexist advertising that objectifies women but I ended up meeting some of them and they talked about how well you know it's advertising but there are opportunities and we are trying to challenge the storm so I don't know if I'm necessarily buying the story but the consciousness that advertising is this public medium to talk to Korean public about issues and opportunity to make a social change is very much present in advertising agencies and demon advertising makers not all advertising practitioners however are willing to compromise and the most extreme example of this dedication to advertising as a public service medium comes from creative director eejit Jacques whose story I'd like to tell you too so from his early youth he was enchanted twist advertising and dreamed of becoming an ad man but Korean agencies looked down on his art diploma from a provincial college so unable to get an advertising job in Korea he eventually entered the School of Visual Arts in New York he showed up in New York was fifty dollars in his pocket and we talking like around two thousand four so fifty dollars in his pocket and she was incredibly poor when he started he staying but that situation changed very quickly because he started winning all this student advertisers advertising prices one after another after another after another and within two years not only he landed up is a reputable international advertising agency in New York he also won more international advertising awards that any other Korean advertising practitioner at that at the age of 28 so II success one human tension from the Korean media and Korean advertising Korean advertising agencies now showered him with generous employment offers which he enjoyed rejecting in the end he returned to Korea in 2009 and set up his own company it just soaks advertising lab around the time he also published the book very humbly entitled to advertising genius each a soak and there he explains his radical position on committing advertising to public interest they'll give you a quote from a book which is not here so he writes in reality buying nike shoes and making advertising is to have everyone leave well if so what kind of advertising would make everyone live happily of course an advertising that makes people buy beautiful shoes slightly wider apartments or new dresses would be a happy advertisement is it not a much happier detachment though that could give homes to homeless people give clothez to people who are freezing to death is not advertising more meaningful when rather than making successful people more successful it saves dying people it revives people who are struggling is earnest wrestling with such questions led to a break West commercial advertising his own agency specializes in public service at mattel advertisements as he explained in a media interview and this is a cold I have their advertising that encourages consumption gives poor people the feeling of relative poverty and inferiority I don't want to make advertising for the minority but public service Public Interest advertising for the majority eejit a commercial accounts but only on the condition that advertisers would respect his vision of advertising and that resulted in some curious campaigns I would like to show you his ad for fair trade chocolate okay so I'm moving to my third and final example and this is about how pro-public cultural logic of advertising manifested on the ground as a consumer movement which attempted to make advertising serve public interest by democratizing advertising money so the name of the agony organization is the media consumer sovereignty campaign alone sabotage to go and campaign in Korean and commonly it's abbreviated as on soju that's how I'll call them so once a Jew emerged from the chaos of summer 2008 back then downtown Seoul was engulfed with untie us beef protests and they started as protests against allowing imports of allegedly contaminated us beef but developed into mass movement against current email box government at the time the three main conservative dailies Chosun Ilbo dong I bow and juvenile boom collectively known as a trojan tone covered the protests extremely extremely negatively on the other hand the oppositional progressive dailies the Hungary and contention one sided with the protesters and just to give you some background meaning in Korea consider the Trojan Don the three conservative newspapers a political force in its own right the children done are critiqued for colluding with big business for harassing on conservatives some went as far as accusing them of driving progressive president no me home to suicide so also jus the consumer organization am interested in were in that camp that so children tone as extremely problematic so once a Jew emerged as an internet forum which condemned would they call the distorted coverage of the anti-us protests by the conservative cogent on the forum popularity grew exponentially with 40,000 people joining within days of its founding the website made public lists of advertisers who published a place I ads only in the conservative media and not in the progressive media and the organization also do demanded advertisers distribute they advertising equally to ensure democracy in Korea the public was encouraged to call the advertisers to tell them to stop advertising in the conservative press because of their distorted coverage under threat of consumer boycotts in their public manifestos and press conferences the protestors presented their campaign as consumer activism they argued that the three conservative newspapers were violating their rights as media consumers to have access to unbiased information but also as consumers of advertisers commodities and as such they were entitled to have a say how advertising budget has spent in the short term the unto jus actually hover the depiction of the situation by conservative organizations it's not sympathetic to also Joe but I'll explain in a second so in short term the answer do campaign turned out quite effective according to answer jus itself on a given day tens of thousands of calls were made and the offices of the children don't advertise errs were paralyzed with an avalanche of calls some of those calls according to late investigation that out of hand and included not only foul language but even death threats to advertising managers and their families in about three weeks after the beginning of the campaign mini advertisers indeed pull their ads from the children done and the three newspapers had to reduce their number of pages in the meantime soul police began an investigation in tone soju activities eventually 24 people were found guilty of the obstruction of business and two main organizers received ten and six months in jail suspended for two years and the rest of participants were fined so that was happening 2008 and seoul district court ruled that consumers were lawfully entitled to buy cod newspapers advertisers to sway editorial policies and it was just the angry calls which obstructed business and constituted a criminal offense and this court ruling was taken seriously by nuance a jew leader Kim young and he'll I he is a poster there and he was organizing a new campaign to buy cod advertisers of conservative newspapers in the summer 2009 to avoid legal problems Kim strategy was to abstain from Collins the advertisers and to post online updates about not buying the bike rotted brands and Samsung was one of the boycott targets and here is Kim with a poster that says that she buy caught some zones that advertises in the conservative daily choice on ago when I met on soju leader Kim Jong Hyun this guy he explained how answer do goal was to achieve a democratic public sphere whose absence also drew members so is the major obstacle towards achieving social economic justice in Korea and interestingly enough advertising was a weapon of choice to change things for the better that quote Kim if advertising no longer goes to those guys the children don't newspapers if you change will arise because those guys in the children don't publish distorted reports and I people cannot know the precise facts at the children don't wither away as the power of those guy decides those guys declines everything can be cheap normally this is not simply a problem of newspaper companies our country's democracy our country's history our country's development everything culminates here so the struggle over Korean democracy history development and everything warranty the suspension of advertising commercial functions and of advertisers discretion of our location of their advertising money and beef advertiser sorry so what I want to emphasize that somehow advertising was a central weapon in the struggle for Korean history democracy and its particular ideas about advertising that put it in the center of this controversy they have another quote from Kim advertising in the children done and the distorted newspapers is the same as destroying and committing wrongdoings advertising can simply be defined as capitalism but the notion of advertising in our country is that given money to those companies is cooperating with deeds and committing a crime so according to Kim it was a crime to fail to prioritize advertising's obligations to the public the law that has transgressed here is obviously not any official law but rather the cultural logic of Korean advertising so on so jus was disciplining advertisers to live up to the ideal of advertising as a medium that serves public interest so just of the year before that the police started investigation and one soju leader and key moderators were prosecuted for obstruction of business and the Whydah actually falls through intimidation and extortion eventually Kim was found guilty and sentenced to 10 months jail term suspended for two years he built a decision through all the levels of Korean judiciary and was found guilty again and again and again so there are many fascinating aspects to the story for the purposes of this talk I would like to put the politics of it aside and emphasize that the kind of activism also drew was doing was think about because of the ideas about advertising as a medium vez public obligations not simply as a tool of advertisers to be used how advertising please okay so this leads me to conclusion of my talk and I hope I convinced you by now that in South Korea there has been a particular cultural logic of advertising in play which prioritizes Public Interest obligations of advertising this logic shapes how advertising is produced and consumed my last example showed that the Public Interest rhetoric in relation to advertising is not simply a matter of particular advertising of particular advertising aesthetics it's also making advertising matter of public scrutiny and enables Koreans to make demands and advertising which might be unthinkable in many other places where advertising is essentially given up upon as naturally prioritizing interests of advertisers the United States I think of the case in point in that so a very broad observation with switch I'd like to finish my talk is that advertising might be a global industry but how advertising fits into social reality is neither natural nor obvious no universal it is ongoing local struggles that define what advertising says who gets to control it and where their control begins and ends advertising connections to large structures are not automatic but need to be renewed in that sense South Korea is a fascinating example how advertising is not foreclosed as a purely commercial domain guided by private interests and largely inaccessible to public claims but is treated as a site and a means towards achieving a better society however utopia the ideas that motivate this project might be thank you thank you dr. federico at this time I'd like to open to questions does anyone have a question yes get don't say anything from here thank you for your talk you know the humanist public service announcement part of your talk I wanted to respond to that and just to see if you could differentiate Korean advertising in that category from American or European advertising I mean I just think of coca-cola saying you're part of this great inclusive world of happiness and tolerance and diversity or united colors of benetton same message or subaru automobiles that you're going to have this incredibly warm and loving family experience as you see your children grow up and you keep your Subaru and they get to use it or the United States Army Reserves where instead of killing people you're going to be you know going out to hurricane stricken areas and rescuing cute little toddlers and bringing them back to their moms and dad and creating this sense of wonderful family unity rather than killing people so I mean it seems at least in the United States that advertising is packed with humanist messages and propaganda like that dodging away from selling the reality of the product which might have advantages a Subaru car might get low mileage or something like that but you know the feeling of those ads is that you're going to have this warm family experience so my question to you just repeat it is how is that humanist category that you were talking about different than the way we do it here and obviously in Western Europe okay that's actually very helpful question I don't say that humanist advertising is unique special thing that exists only in Korea and the rest simul advertising with a sentimental aesthetic which is to be found in many places United States I had some examples sent to me from heaven ease advertising so this is kind of an advertising genre that happens in many places with a special in Korea and that's kind of blurry line for example in the United States when advertising is tells us sentimental melodramatic story and i'm thinking coca-cola ads usually there is some kind of attempt to incorporate the product there and to make a case okay like you have this wonderful family there's beautiful images and this is the advertiser and they somehow part of it so that connection is kind of more pronounced and in korean advertising and in korean advertising there is certain aesthetic when it's almost a matter of pride not to show the advertiser at all like for example from that hero commercial i showed you you have no way of guessing that it is telecommunications company like you have to know what sk is so in a way like those Korean advertising's I would say they are go a little bit further away and shine away from the commercial message so they are not that fundamentally different but I would is a little bit further on that continuum so that's one thing second thing what I find unusual in Korea is that it is those advertisement that everyone wants to talk about I can guess my sense that the most loved ads would be humorous ads those ads are shared those ads I discussed and very few people would actually admit to their friends that they cried over an advertising somehow not the proper way to respond to advertising if you are you know adult critical thinker all that in Korea that kind of reaction is welcome at shows use at your sensitive human being so I would say those advertising's are much more mainstream in Korea than they are here hi I have a question pertaining to the the guy you mentioned who started his own advertising agency to make public service announcements since he's not really getting funding from any particular brands where do people like that who support these PSAs kind of get the funding to put these commercials out onto air so it's a very small agency he has actually visited and summer 2013 he gets a lot of orders for public service announcements from different non-government organizations recently I saw his ads which I think quite brilliant so he's saying he makes advertising which is relatively cheap to produce but has a very powerful creative message and he uses the media itself to convey the message so among his clients would be newspapers and Geo's and the reason that I wanted to mention he did a campaign for police department in Pusan and I was in part of Korea and the ad is a poster has male and female version so male offers and female officer and they kind of stand in holding their hand like that and on their arm there is a chain which ends as a swaying for children so it's actual swaying which people would you know use when they walk around Pusan so that kind of advertising him so such campaigns there would be relatively cheap because it's just setting up a poster it's not big time advertising campaign so he has like a niche for smaller perhaps companies most likely NGOs government organizations which want to improve the image has a website way he acts exhibit his advertising his actual quite fascinating when I went to his office it was quite interesting because every aspiring advertising ad maker in Korea wants to make an internship at his agency so he showed me like a pile of applications he's God and people tell exist stories out like I dream to become an admin since I was at a roaster years old and this is what makes me suitable for this internship site and I don't think he makes money or that but it's definitely certain buzz around his agency the issue was about the issue of the advertising for conservatives separate advertising what kind of advertising I don't understand that okay okay so it's a bit of a complicated situation so basically the issue was not advertising content the content of advertising was not a part of that discussion at all the question was how do companies spread their advertising budgets where should a company place their advertisements and the purpose of the campaign was to put pressure on companies to spend some of the advertising with the conservative campers already spending it but channel some of the advertising to the progressive camp so the idea was if this companies want South Korea to be democracy they have this obligation to advertise equally to support Democratic public sphere so it was a project of democratizing advertising spending and looking at it from North America it might seem like a very strange undertaking because I think it's what occurred to very few people to put such demands and advertisers because idea is all you know it's their advertising money they spend it how they liked it yet in the eyes of that consumer organization the way they saw it as advertising circulates publicly therefore it has public obligations people are consumers of those companies they work for those companies therefore they should have a say how they spent their advertising so it's kind of a claim that ok advertising might be a private resource of advertisers but because advertising has its public obligations members of a public can demand that that spent in a way that they see fit does it explain it how would the public benefit from getting advertisement money and money being put into groups that wouldn't be interested perhaps in their product I mean why wouldn't they want to advertise to everyone I imagine they were exclusive because they felt the conservative market would be interested in their product so why would people who wouldn't be interested in their product want them to spend money on advertising to them okay so the situation was so it's about print advertising in Korea conservatively excuse me progressive newspapers and situation was print advertising in Korea is somewhat complicated because the Main Street conservative newspapers are the biggest newspapers and they get the most advertising and conservative camp would say that they get the most advertising because they have the widest readership they represent most people and basically they deserve it and that makes perfect commercial sense progressive camp and organization I was talking about would be part of that would say well it's not simply that it's progressive newspapers they are not getting sufficient advertising revenues not because people are not interested but because they are not powerful politically so the idea is of someone advertisers only in progressive newspapers they would be criticized by conservative newspapers so decision about where to place advertising it's not simply a marketing decision which consumers you want to talk to but rather a political decision so they were trying to deal with a very political issue yet the language they were using is that of consumer citizenship and advertising was their point of pressure which they thought they couldn't do it intervene so it was using consumer issue you to intervene in a highly sensitive political issue in Korea that's always a complicated story to tell hi thank you so much for your talk you mentioned the soju ad and female sexuality a bit in that story and you have a great article on that which I fur before and you know the image that's sort of prominent globally these days right is kpop ray of Korean women and highly sexualized images and these images are used to sell products right corporations have sort of bought into this and there's this deep intersection between pop music sexualized bodies and the selling of products and so I was wondering if you could talk more about how all of that fits into the matrix that you described Howard Howe kpop and the intersection between popular music sexualized bodies and corporate interests then sort of fits into what you described here or maybe it doesn't at all but the relationship okay so the most typical mainstream Korean advertising would be advertising the juices celebrities and direct no specific statistics I so different estimate that between like 65 to 75 percent of mainstream Korean advertising would have liked some kind of celebrity feature there so in a sense humanists advertising which I talked about contrasts itself with celebrity advertising and the logic of contrast that is celebrity advertising shows is glamorous people it's probably Photoshop the ptosis unrealistic standards and what how does it make you feel it makes you feel insecure that you're not that skinny or not this and that so basically the idea of celebrity advertising that it kind of promotes problematic things in Korean society like sessions with looks plastic surgery perhaps all that stuff humanists advertising on the other hand was usually praise that it's portrays everyday life as it is it shows regular people and in fact one of the common phrases for humanists advertising is that it shows an English and kind of sounds gross human smelling everyday Saddam names hannenin kind of that and the idea is it's a good so realistic it's like a visceral again the idea is it's the opposite of that glamorous world of celebrities but rather it is like you and me people like us have in everyday life and the kuro it again the idea was every one is a hero you don't need to be celebrity so there is a certain tension and humanists advertising kind of differentiates itself from regulus celebrity advertising is that ad I briefly mentioned about soju commercial it did uses celebrity and sometimes celebrity advertising is used to promote different social causes but generally that's very rare the purpose of using a celebrity is the idea that well you have a celebrity people will pay attention and do they pay attention in a way your job is done you just have to name the product and tell the brand so you don't really need a story to keep people paying attention so in that regard that was move an exception than a row okay thank you very much dr. federico thank you

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