First Science From Juno at Jupiter (NASA News Audio with Visuals)

First Science From Juno at Jupiter (NASA News Audio with Visuals)

– [Jane] Good morning, I’m
Jane Platt with the newsroom at NASA’s Jet
Propulsion Laboratory
in Pasadena, California. The topic of today’s
media telecom: The very first in
depth science results from NASA’s Juno mission. Juno arrived in
orbit around Jupiter on July fourth of 2016 and
today we’re gonna find out some of its dramatic
discoveries about the planet. We’ll hear brief presentations
from five speakers and then we’ll
take reporter Q&A. If you do have a
question please press *1 to be placed in the queue
and you can follow along with the visuals as the speakers
give their presentations and answer questions at,
word. Again, Remind you that as they
go through the images, you can click on a
picture to get it full screen on your computer. I’d like to go ahead and
introduce our speakers. We’ll be hearing
from Diane Brown, the program executive at NASA
Headquarters in Washington. Then we’ll hear
from Scott Bolton, the Juno principal investigator at Southwest Research
Institute in San Antonio. Jack Connerney, the deputy
principal investigator at NASA’s Goddard
Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Heidi Becker, the Juno
radiation monitoring investigation lead here at JPL and Candy Hansen, the
Juno co-investigator at the Planetary Science
Institute in Tucson, Arizona. Let’s start things off
with Diane Brown, Diane. – [Diane] Thank you Jane. We’re very excited to be sharing these first major
discoveries from Juno, our solar powered
space craft orbiting around the king of the planets. Juno has now completed
five science passes over Jupiter and has provided amazing images and science data. Members of the public have
been actively participating in the mission by
using the Juno cam data to produce beautiful
and creative images for us all to enjoy
and we’ll get to see some new ones today. Juno launched in August of 2011 and is one of three
currently operating missions within NASA’s new
Frontiers program. As Jane mentioned, the
Juno team got to celebrate with our own fireworks
last fourth of July when we got into
orbit around Jupiter. The results being
announced today are just the beginning
as we look forward to even more exciting
science as we go forward. I’m now going to
hand it off to Scott, to provide the
science highlights. – [Scott] Okay thanks, Diane. It’s great to be here. It’s exciting to be able
to share what we’ve learned from some of these
first passes by Jupiter. I’m real excited to tell you
all of the news that we’ve got. So I’d like talk first to the
first image, ScottBolton1. So here I’m gonna illustrate
really how Juno works. So Juno flies over
the poles of Jupiter and it goes very,
very close to Jupiter, just within a few thousand
miles of the cloud tops. It’s traveling very, very fast. It takes only about two
hours to screen past Jupiter. So the way it really
works is every 53 days we screen by Jupiter, dropping
down from the north pole and going out of the south
and we’re going so fast that that whole pass from
north pole to south pole is about two hours long. Most of our science is collected during these very close passes and that’s really
what’s unique about Juno is because we get
so close to Jupiter and we cross over both
poles that allows us to see very new things and unique
things about the interior and how the magnetosphere works. So today what you’ll hear
is what we’ve really learned from our first two
close passes by Jupiter. We’ll also share some
more recent data, including our latest images
that came down last week. Some observations of
interplanetary dust and Jupiter ring and you’ll
hear some recent sounds from Jupiter that are
actually quite unique. So as I go through
this, the general theme of our discoveries is
really how different Jupiter looks from what we expected. So Juno in many ways is
looking inside of Jupiter for the first time and
close up and personal. What scientists expected
was that Jupiter was relatively boring
and uniform inside and for decades scientists
have assumed this, that if we drop
below the cloud tops, below where the
sunlight reaches, that pretty much Jupiter
was all uniform inside and it really didn’t
matter where you looked it would all look the same
and what we’re finding is anything but
that is the truth. It’s very different,
very complex and we’re gonna share
those with you today. So I’d like to go
over to ScottBolton2 and here you see an
incredibly beautiful picture of the north pole of Jupiter. This is created by
amateurs that sign on to the Jupiter website and
make our images for us. This one’s unique in
the sense that each time we pass over Jupiter cause
we’re going over the poles, it’s half sunlight, half
dark or half night side and what somebody has done
here is they’ve actually stitched together pictures
from different close passes of Jupiter so that you can
see the whole thing sunlit and what you see is incredibly
just complex features, the cyclones and anticyclones
all over the poles. That wasn’t really expected. The blue shoes is probably real and the biggest feature is
that Jupiter from the poles doesn’t look anything like
it does from the equator or from what our usual
picture of Jupiter has zones and belts,
the great red spot and we see these stripes
and that’s the Jupiter we’ve all known
and grown to love and when you look from the pole,
it looks totally different. In fact if you looked
at this picture and somebody had shown it
to you a few years ago, I don’t think anybody would’ve
guessed this is Jupiter so the fact that there,
the number of cyclones that you see at the poles
is literally something new that we didn’t expect and
the fact that the north and south poles don’t
really look like each other is also a puzzle to us. So scientists are working
to try to understand how these dynamics
work and why Jupiter looks the way it is and of
course we’re also wondering whether this is a
stable configuration. We’ve only gone over a couple
times and the question is do these storms or
cyclones that we see here, are they stable? Are they gonna stay the
same way for years and years like the great red spot which
lasted 300 years at least? Or is this something
that’s dynamic? And of course only time will
tell us which one is true. Okay so the next slide,
slide three, ScottBolton3, shows you a scientific
and artistic expression of what the inside of
Jupiter might look like. So these are cutouts
of Jupiter from the top all the way down to
the middle of the core. This represents what
a lot of scientists believe Jupiter looked like
even before Juno got there. In fact a lot of our
mission was based on some of these kinds of
figures and what Juno is about is looking inside of
Jupiter pretty much every way we know how. So we have three different
techniques to look into Jupiter. One is the gravity field
which sees all the way down to the bottom where
you see ice rock core and you’re looking
at like 40 mega bars, 40 million bars of pressure
and one bar of pressure is what we feel at
Earth at sea level. So that’s the atmosphere
of the Earth at sea level pushing down on you. So in the middle of Jupiter is
a much, much higher pressure. So if there is an ice rock core, the rocks in middle
of Jupiter don’t look like the rocks in your backyard. We have a magnetic
field experiment that looks into
that bluish region that’s called metallic hydrogen and that’s where the
hydrogen is squeezed so much and the temperature is such
that it actually behaves more like a metal and it’s
like a liquid metallic hydrogen and we believe
somewhere in there, maybe the magnetic
field gets created or maybe above that
where there’s enough
charged particles. But the magnetic field kind
of penetrates into that. Then at the top part
of the atmosphere, just on the right
you see a cut out called meteorological
layer, that’s sort of the upper atmosphere
where the clouds and the upper
atmosphere is dynamic. It’s actually quite deep. It goes down hundreds or even
a thousand kilometers deep and we’ve never seen that. We have a new instrument
that was pretty much invented for Juno called the
microwave radiometer or MWR and it looks into that region. So we have these three
ways to look into Jupiter. The top part is done
with the microwaves, the middle part is done
with the magnetic field and then the gravity looks all
the way down to the center. So now what I’d like
to do is show you a little bit of the new
data and what we’ve learned from this MWR the first
time we passed through. So go to ScottBolton slide four. So here you see on
the left hand side, an image of Jupiter from
Cassini I think it is and it shows you the Jupiter
that we all are used to with zones and
belts, the stripes and then you see
the great red spot. On the right hand
side you see some of the new microwave data and
what you’re looking at here is at the far right side
of that, the top of it, it’s sort of the cloud
tops and the part that turns orange
at the bottom of it is looking deep about
350 kilometers down. Now in between that what you see in the red, the white and
a little bit of bluish hue, those are indications of
how much ammonia is present. Or the abundance of ammonia. So orange means
it’s very abundant. Yellow means a little less,
white is even less than that and blue is the least
amount of the ammonia. So at the top is
very little ammonia and the ammonia starts in. But the most startling
feature of this that was brand new
and unexpected was
that sort of column that you see in orange where
you have a band of ammonia around the equator of Jupiter. It’s in the zone,
it’s very deep. In fact this is
completely unexpected. You have a deep band
of ammonia that goes from the top of Jupiter
as deep as we can see. It goes down to
250 kilometers here because that’s the limit
of where we’re looking. It may penetrate even
deeper than that. So that was a new
thing that we learned just when we first
looked at this data and saw it for the
first time with MWR. The other thing
that’s new about this is that in general you
see that the ammonia peaks across all latitudes pretty
deep, all the way at the bottom and what scientists
have expected was that that would peak and
be uniform much further up, near where we thought
the ammonia clouds were gonna be forming. Then finally, you see that
there’s a lot of variation with the ammonia in latitude. There’s some bluish parts in
the mid northern latitudes. There’s different
yellows and oranges that are showing up even
at the high latitudes and what this is telling
us is that Jupiter is not very well mixed. It’s not all uniform inside. The idea of once you
drop below the sunlight that everything
would all be uniform and blurring and mixed
up was completely wrong. It’s actually very different
depending on where you look at. This is a brand new
result and this in fact addresses some questions
that we’ve had for decades. About 20 years ago we
sent in the Galileo probe into Jupiter to
measure its composition and to learn about
its atmosphere. At that time scientists
thought that once you went through the cloud tops you would basically
see the same thing and no matter where you
looked it would look the same. But in fact, it came back
with a surprising results that people didn’t
completely understand and one of the assumptions
was that the Galileo probe just happened to
go into a warm spot and in fact it did look
warm where it went in and maybe that was unique
and what we’re finding is that many parts
of Jupiter are unique and if you’d stuck in
three or four probes into Jupiter in different
places, you’d very likely would’ve gotten three or
four different results and you wouldn’t have
necessarily known
what to make of it. So only through this new
look that we see with MWR do we realize how variable
this giant planet really is beneath its top layer of
clouds and that’s really gonna force us to rethink
not only how Jupiter works but how do we explore
Saturn, Uranus and Neptune if they’re highly
variable like this? We may need some kind
of technique like Juno or maybe the next generation
of these kinds of things where we can look beneath
the clouds globally to understand how
things are varying. You also note that the
whole signature of the zones and belts doesn’t seem
that apparent in our data and that puzzled us and
surprised us so the zone and belt structure
either doesn’t penetrate all the way down but you can
see there is some structure it just doesn’t correlate
to the zones and belts and so it evolves to something
new inside of the planet other than maybe
right near the equator where that ammonia band is. So that was a surprise
to us and we’ve learned that these zones and
belts either don’t exist or this instrument isn’t
sensitive to it for some reason. But we don’t understand
why it wouldn’t be and so you really see this
new picture of Jupiter in this data that is very
dynamic underneath the surface of the clouds as
you penetrate down and there’s this strange
band at the equator. Now it almost looks a little
reminiscent to the Earth. The Earth has something
called a Hadley cell where we have a tropical
band around the equator and then we have the
subtropics just above that. Those are dry, the
tropical band is moist. Jupiter looks a little bit
like that in this ammonia but it couldn’t, it’s
unlikely for that to have worked the same
way that Earth does. The reason why the Earth
has a tropical band is there’s a surface
underneath the atmosphere that allows for a return flow. You either have an
ocean or land underneath and that allows for us to
create these circulation cycles and create these
dynamics on the Earth. Jupiter is gas all the way down. So while it might look a
little bit like the Earth, it can’t be working
the same way. So that was a big
surprise to us. It is possible that
this band penetrates all the way down into
the middle of Jupiter. We don’t know and
eventually when we combine all of our magnetic field
and gravity field science and get more microwave
science, we may be able to tell something about
how this band is working and how it’s being formed. So I don’t have
another figure for this but I wanted to touch
on the gravity field, which I think there’s
sort of a general theme that we’re seeing that the
inside of Jupiter works very differently than
people had assumed. It’s much more complex
and there are motions deep inside that people
hadn’t anticipated. The gravity field is
consistent with that. When we went to go
measure the gravity field what we were really
looking for was the core whether there was a
compact core or no core and instead what we found was
that it really looks fuzzy. There may be a core
there but it’s very big and it may be
partially dissolved and we’re studying that but
that came as a big surprise to us that there was no core. Now these mysteries that
have to do with the interior extend into our magnetic
field experiment and I wanna turn it
over to Jack Connerney, my colleague who is the lead
for the magnetometer experiment as well as the
deputy PI to explain the magnetic field discoveries. – [Jack] Thank you Scott. I’d like to start off with the
magnetic field observations. First off magnetometer
is like a fancy compass, an electronic compass. It measures both the direction
of the magnetic field, like a compass does and it
also measures the amplitude or the magnitude of the field. The Earth’s magnetic field,
we have a pole in the north and a pole in the south. In between it varies a little. Wherever you go on
Earth the compass needle does not deviate very
much from north or south and that was kind of our
expectation for Jupiter before Juno’s observations
based on our knowledge from spacecraft that passed
not so close to Jupiter. Juno really is the first
time we got in close, very close to the
surface of Jupiter and what we found in
our first few passes is that the magnetic
field was both stronger than we expected where we
expected it to be strong and it was weaker than we
expected when we expected it to be weak. In other words, it evidenced
a dramatic spatial variation that we were not quite
aware of previously. To illustrate that, I’d
like to turn to Jack1 which is a figure drawn
up by our grad student up at Harvard, Kimmie
Moore and she’s represented on this sphere, the magnetic
field that we expected at Jupiter and notice
the contours that extend from left to right. The red positive
contours up north and the blue negative
contours down south. On top of that globe
there’s a trajectory, a subsurface latitude
and longitude of the spacecraft during PJ1. In those five groups
of different colors represent the kind of
addition to the magnetic field that you would have to
make to follow the field along the trajectory. It just illustrates
the spatial variation of field that we see
moving along the trajectory close to Jupiter and
we’ve seen that now on subsequent periapses. Of course this is just a
notional representation but it’s very significant
because when we see this kind of small spatial scale
variation it indicates to us that we may be very
close to the source. So that might mean that
the dynamo is above that metallic hydrogen region that you saw in Scott3
and it may operate in the molecular hydrogen
envelope above there. So that’s very significant. But I’d like to turn to some of the observations
of the aurora. If you can go to Jack2,
we have a little movie showing the ultraviolet
emissions from the south pole collected by the UBS
spectrometer as it
flew above the pole. This is the first complete
image of the south pole that we have because, of course,
all previous observations were made near the equator
plane, never from atop Jupiter’s polar region
where we could stare down and look at the aurora. So this is an amazingly complex
aurora in the south pole. It has many components that
we expected to see there. The very innermost circle
you see is the main aurora. Then there are very
substantial emissions around that main aurora
extending all the way down to the emissions that
you see just to the left in the still which is Jack3. That’s caused by an interaction
with the satellite Io, the innermost satellite in
Jupiter’s magnetosphere. That long tail
extending past Io, that simply traces out Io’s
orbital motion about Jupiter. The very significant
thing about this figure are the reds and the
whites and greens. Those colors represent
a different path length through the atmosphere
for these photons, these ultraviolet photons. Inside the main aurora
we see emissions that are largely red that
line between the red emission and white emission that
follows the sun around and illustrates a solar
wind control of the aurora that we were not quite
prepared to expect but more significantly it
looks like we can interpret those reds and whites in
an entirely different way than we have previously. It looks like the red
emission might evidence electrons being sucked
out of the atmosphere instead of precipitating in. We normally attribute
auroral emissions to electrons precipitating
down onto the ionosphere. But instead it looks likes
some of these emissions are actually driven by
electrons being pulled out of the atmosphere. So that’s intriguing. I have to move now to my
final graphic which is Jack4. I wanna talk just briefly about the trip from
Earth to Jupiter. We spent five long
cold years in space in transit to Jupiter. During that time,
the star cameras that we use to provide
attitude information for the magnetometers,
they looked out into space continuously
and occasionally they saw things flying by that
weren’t in the star catalog. What we found is
that we could track some of those objects and
indeed they were excavated from the solar panel by the
impact of dust particles. Now these are tiny particles. You could fit 100 of them
on the head of a pin. But they’re traveling
at enormous velocity. They’re 10 times
a speeding bullet. So they excavate little
pieces from the spacecraft and those float off and we see
them in reflected sunlight. So it turns out that we
can use this spacecraft and its prodigious 60
square meters of solar array as the largest dust detector
ever flown in space. So we’re sensitive to
particles that are larger and more infrequent than
those that can be measured in space by a dedicated
dust detector. So that’s exciting. Not to worry. The spacecraft is
operating fine. It turns out all spacecraft
traveling this path are pelted with
numerous impacts. We recorded close to a
thousand of them on the way out and we’re still operating fine. We’re just the first spacecraft that’s able to see what happens. So I’d like to turn this
over now to my colleague Heidi Becker to talk about
the radiation environment. Heidi.
– [Heidi] Thank you, Jack and to start I’d
actually like to keep on the theme of star cameras and share a very special
picture with everybody that we took with our
stellar reference unit which is the
spacecraft star camera. This is our navigation
camera that takes pictures of the stars to guide our way. So if everyone would go
ahead and start Heidi1 which is our
animation, what you see is where we took this image and it was in a
very special place. What you’re seeing
is Juno flying in between the narrow
gap between the planet and the radiation belts
and as we turned out the star cameras
took this picture and if you go to Heidi2
you’ll see the still of that and what you’re
looking at is the view of the constellation Orion
from inside Jupiter’s ring. This is the first
image of Jupiter’s ring that has ever been collected from the inside
of it looking out. Juno is 3,000 miles
from the planet when we took this picture
and what you’re seeing here is the main belt of
Jupiter, main ring, in the center of the
image and the bright star in the upper left is Betelgeuse
and the three bright ones in the lower right hand side
of the image is Orion’s belt. So what you’re looking
at here is a ring of dust that 40,000 miles away and
stars that are hundreds of light years away all
in the same picture. If you go to Heidi3, we’ve
connected the dots for you so you can see Orion there. It’s very recognizable. This is what it looks like
when you see it from Earth and we thought it would be
nice to share it with everybody that you could be half
a billion miles away from we stargaze on Earth
and look at this stargazing from Juno and heaven looks
the same to us from Jupiter. There’s no radiation
in that picture but that isn’t true
everywhere at perijove. So if you will go to Heidi4
and play this animation. You can just keep playing
this as I explain it to you. This is an artist’s rendition
of Juno’s perijove one which is our pass
close to the planet and you see we’re just
grazing the inner edges of the radiation belts as
we go through that gap. Now we know for sure
that gap is there. We were counting on
but no spacecraft has ever flown that
close to the planet. No one has ever been that
high in the inner edges of the radiation belts and
like everything else with Juno the radiation
environment was different than we thought it would be and the closer we got to
Jupiter the more (interference) it was than we
thought it would be and as a matter of fact when
you hit those inner edges there that you see in the animation,
high energy electrons that get into our instruments
and degrade and create noise, the number of those
was 10 times less than what we thought
it was going to be which is very great news from
an engineering perspective. It’s great for science. All the radiation modelers
are gonna have a lot of data to work with and
this is something we never could’ve known
without going there. So now this is just
one piece of our orbit and we know we’re gonna get
into harsher places later on but I also wanna let
everybody know that Juno is very healthy and doing great and the suit of armor’s working. So with that I’d like
to hand it over to Candy who’ll tell you about Juno cam. – [Candy] Thank you, Heidi. I’m going to be
showing some data that we collected
just last Friday. So just last Friday Juno
passed close to Jupiter on what we call perijove six
and what you are looking at, look at CandyHansen1, those
are 14 Juno cam images that we collected as we flew
through that two hour pass from the north pole
to the south pole. So the image on the left
is looking straight down at the north pole. It’s half lit, as
Scott was describing. The north pole itself is
approximately in the center and you’re seeing
all of Jupiter. On the far right, on
the right hand side, we’re looking at the
southern hemisphere and again we’re far enough
away from the planet that you see all of Jupiter
in our field of view. Now the interesting thing is
what happens as we zoom in and these 14 images,
the width of the image is the width of the
Juno cam field of view but we collect our images
as the spacecraft spins so as the spacecraft
gets closer and closer and closer to Jupiter
we see less and less of Jupiter itself
in terms of area but we see more and more
detail in the pictures. So I am going to actually
show you the fourth image in the sequence from
the left to start with and then the fourth
from the right. So just picking out two
of those 14 to look at in this higher detail. So if you go to
Candy2, this is taken at approximately 38
degrees north latitude and you can see a big
wavy band of clouds in the middle of the image. If you go to Candy3, I’m
drawing your attention to those clouds
and then in Candy4 it’s really just a cut
out of that same image but there’s a couple of things
I wanted to point out here. So we’ve got these
big wavy clouds but then you can see
tiny little white dots. They look tiny just
because Jupiter is so big. These are actually clouds that are about 50
kilometers across. They are up above
the cloud deck. We know that because
we can actually see them casting
little tiny shadows. We’ve seen this actually before in some of our earlier images but in this particular perijove the lighting is really
good to see these features and we have our camera
settings dialed in and honestly we were so
enchanted by the poles that we’re only now
just starting to look at other places on the planet. So these look almost
like squall lines. If you go to Candy5 this
is an image taken now in the southern hemisphere. This is the south
tropical zone and again I’m going to go to the
cutouts that show you in more detail what
we’re looking at. So Candy6 and then
stop at Candy7. Here you can see again, that it’s a really
stormy day on Jupiter. We’ve got these little
white storm systems really just scattered across
the entire south tropical zone. Again they’re about 50
kilometers across which is, so I keep saying tiny but
they’re really not tiny at all and they’re up above the
cloud deck at a pressure level where the temperature
is going to be very cold and so what you’re seeing
is most likely ice crystals of water ice and ammonia ice. I want to mention
that these images that I just showed
were processed by two of our amateur
citizen scientists, Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran. They have processed quite
a number of our images but it’s really the whole
endeavor of Juno cam was to find ways for the
public to participate in a meaningful way
on a flight mission. So with that I’d like
to draw your attention to CandyHansen number
eight and what you’ll see is you’ll see across the top, I’ve got four images of Jupiter. This is just four of many images that our amateur astronomer
community has contributed. So on our website we have a way that the community
can upload pictures taken from their
backyard telescopes. That’s the top row. Then we take those images
and again many more than four and we make a cylindrical map which is what you
see along the bottom. Then for a given perijove, pass, and in this case it’s number six we ask the public to
define points of interests. Places they think would
be good spots for pictures and so that’s what the
yellow circles represent and the two images
that I just showed you are the ones that are covered
by those green circles. So the public voted on
what to take pictures of, we ended up with
those and so our whole citizen science
endeavor, I think, is turning out to be
quite interesting. The last chart, CandyHansen9, we love to see artistic
products in addition to the more rigorous renditions of color reconstruction
and so on. The thing about art is
that it captures feelings that either you don’t
recognize in yourself or maybe you don’t know
how to express and for me, this image captures
how I feel to be a part of this project and I’ll
just mention that this was processed by Myrna. With that I’m gonna
turn it back to Scott to give us a little bit more. – [Scott] So thanks, Candy. I’m always amazed looking
at those pictures. The idea of seeing those
little cloud features, those white caps,
coming out of Jupiter. I mean they’re full of
ammonia and water ice. What you’re really watching
is it’s snowing on Jupiter and we’re seeing how it works
and so I can imagine myself flying around in that
atmosphere while it’s snowing and it’s really great to
be able to project myself and use that imagination
and understand how another whole world works. Some things are similar and a
lot of things are different. The last picture of the
art really shows how people are able to artistically
express themselves and it’s so great
that we can do that and enable that with the Juno. We have a big campaign with
Juno for public awareness where we’re trying to
inspire and motivate really the connections between
science, art and music. A lot of the images
that are being made on our website by the public
are actually artistic. Some of them are science. A lot of them are artistic
and it’s great to see that and that whole
collaboration that we do extends into music and
we formed a collaboration with Apple and we’ve made
some music that’s Juno related and Apple’s helped
up distribute that and what I’d like to play
for you next is some sounds that we got, that
we received on PJ4, the fourth time
we flew by Jupiter and we’ve been studying those and we wanna share them with you because they really
echo and demonstrate this connection between
science, music and art in the sense that these sounds sound a lot like musical notes. So you can take a listen
to nature’s music here with going to
ScottBolton slide seven. Now that’s a audio video file. (static and random beeping) So I’d like to go to
ScottBolton8, sort of to close. This is a picture of Jupiter that’s also posted
on our website. We open it up to
amateur astronomers who help us actually plan
out the Juno cam images. This was taken by
Christopher Go and posted. It’s a pretty recent
picture of Jupiter and what I wanted to show,
this looks like the Jupiter that we know and love. It’s got the zones and
belts and the great red spot and I wanna extend an
invitation to all of you to join our team
as we look forward to our very next close
forward pass by Jupiter when we’ll be targeting
that great red spot. Now that great
spot’s moving around so it’s not the
easiest thing to target but on July 11th we’re targeting
to fly right over that. So stay tuned and you
can join us on July 11th. Thank you. – [Jane] Alright thank
you, Scott and thank you to all the panelists. We’re gonna be ready to take
some questions from reporters and we’ll try to grab a
couple from social media. A reminder to reporters,
if you do have a question please press *1, tell
the operator you name and your affiliation
and I do wanna mention that this media telecom
will be archived afterwards with visuals on Ustream
at and I’ll give that out once
again before we wrap up. Let’s go to our first question which comes from Alan
Boyle of Geek Wire. Alan?
– [Alan] Hi, thank you. I guess this would be
a question for Scott. What do you think
are the factors that have lead to
these surprises? How did you get things
so wrong I guess would be one way of putting it? – [Scott] So I think
we’re all sort of feeling the humility and
humbleness of nature. You know I think a
lot of scientists, when we looked out
at the giant planets and we saw that they were so
big, these giant big gas balls was that a lot of Earth works through the sunlight
generating dynamics in the atmosphere and
a lot of assumptions were that once you
turn off that energy that maybe everything would
be uniform and boring. I think that we were just
wrong and so this was making us rethink how giant planets work,
not just in our own system but giant planets
are really important throughout the galaxy
and the universe. We see other planetary
systems and a lot of them have giant planets. Sometimes many times
bigger than Jupiter even and we’re getting the
first really close up and personal look of
Jupiter and we’re seeing that a lot of our ideas were
incorrect and maybe naive. That it’s very complex
and really there’s a lot of deep motions going on
and there’s a theme here. There’s motions going on
just beneath the clouds that we see with the microwave and there may be very deep winds and deep motions
going on that we see with the gravity field. It’s hard to say yes but
more data will tell us how deep those really go. We’re just at the
beginning of this mission where we’re eventually
gonna map out that planet. – [Jane] Alright,
thank you, Scott. We’re going to take
our next question and actually before I do I
just wanted to ask reporters because we do have quite
a few of you in the queue to keep their question
to one question if needed one quick follow up so we can go through
the first round and then afterwards
assuming we have time we can go back to everybody. Anyway, but that was
fine and Alan Boyle you did not do that so you did
not do more than one question so it wasn’t intended at you. Alright, let’s go ahead with
a question from Marcia Dunn of the Associated Press. – [Marcia] Yes, hi. For Dr. Bolton, the larger
splotches at the poles, not the oval cyclones but
the other weather systems that are thousands of kilometers
across, what are those and for the cyclones do you
have any idea how powerful they would be, what
more over category five and how many cyclones all
together would you guess? – [Scott] So I haven’t done
a count of all the cyclones. But there’s lots of them. I mean you could
count them yourself. There’s dozens at least
going through the system. These large pieces are
other dynamic features. I don’t think I can
explain exactly how fast any of these are going. We haven’t measured
all the velocities for each of these cyclones. Of course it takes multiple
images at different times in order to get that kind
of dynamic information. So I think those are objective
that maybe we’ll be able to accomplish as we go over
the poles multiple times. Over perijove six, the
one that we just took, once we saw those cyclones
we basically set out to take images so that
we could try to measure some of those velocities
that you’re talking about but I think a lot
of this was so new. We really just
learned that Jupiter really is like this
from this data. Now the hard work
comes with the theories to try to explain why and how
is these dynamics manifested and how are they maintained
and are they stable. These are questions that
I think are new objectives for our mission as we
move on and get more data. – [Marcia] Quick followup,
these dynamic features that are so much bigger
than the cyclones, could they also be cyclones
like mega sized cyclones? – [Scott] They could be although they don’t appear to
be gigantic cyclones. They don’t have
the same morphology that I would be
used to but I think that those kinds of
questions I think we would be better
off pointing you toward our atmospheric
expects rather than me. – [Marcia] Okay thank you. – [Jane] Alright thanks, Marcia and then we’re gonna move on
to Bill Arwood of CBS News. Hi Bill.
– [Bill] Hey thanks. For Scott, can you expand a
little bit more about the core? I’m not really sure how
to visualize a fuzzy core. I realize you don’t have
a solid answer to this but any expansion
would be great. And for Candy, on CandyHansen5,
the width of that band, that whitish band
with all the stuff, it looks so much broader
than the normal belts we see from equatorial
views, I’m just wondering if it’s the orientation
that’s throwing me off. I’m not really sure
what I’m seeing there. Thanks. – [Scott] Why do we
let Candy go first. – [Candy] Okay yeah so
when we’re close to Jupiter we do not see horizon to horizon so we’re only seeing a
limited range in latitude and that’s why it looks
so odd and if you look at the sequence of 14 you
can see, you can literally, the way to think about it is if you were looking through
Juno cam’s camera lens riding on the spacecraft
you’d start out at a distance. Say you were looking at
your hand at a distance, now you pull your
hand into your nose, that’s what it’s like. So we are only seeing just
the south tropical zone at that point cause we
are so close to Jupiter. – [Jane] Okay, thank you and
we’re going to go now to Mike- – [Scott] I think I owe
him a question on the core. – [Jane] Okay sorry about that. Go ahead. – [Scott] So the
fuzzy core idea. Scientists when
they’ve done models and what we were kind of
expecting to see at Jupiter, there were two extreme cases. A little compact core down
in the center of Jupiter maybe Earth size
or one Earth mass, 10 Earth masses,
something like that, all compact and tight
in the center of Jupiter or maybe there was no core. Maybe Jupiter formed
without a core at all. And those were the two
kind of extreme models and scientists were in
one camp or the other. What we found was that
really neither were true. There may be a little
bit of a compact core but most of things there
may be layers there, there seems to be a fuzzy
core that may be much larger than anybody had anticipated
and so the gravity data that we’ve gotten thus far
is not really consistent with just a small
compact core or zero core but it is somewhat consistent
with a large fuzzy core that may be partially dissolved. It’s also consistent maybe
with some deep motions or zonal winds and
things like that that may be going on that
are dictating the interior of Jupiter’s dynamics
which are very different than what historical
models have assumed. – [Jane] Alright thanks, we’re gonna go to Mike
Wahl at – [Mike] Thank you
guys, this was all just like really,
really interesting. This one’s probably for Scott
or also for Candy, maybe. Scott, you said there
was clouds, it was
snowing on Jupiter, is that water ice that
we’re talking about? Snow like we’re used to
here on Earth or is it some kind of exotic substance? Is it something we’d
be able to recognize? – [Scott] It’s probably
mostly ammonia ice but there may be water
ice mixed into it so it’s not exactly like
the snow that we have and I was using my imagination when I said it’s snowing there. It could be hail. (panel laughing) – [Mike] Okay, thank you. – [Jane] Okay we’re gonna
jump over to Ken Chang with the New York Times. Ken.
– [Ken] I was wondering if, this is for Jack, if you
could explain the physics of how electrons could be sucked out of the atmosphere
to create the aurora. – [Jack] Okay, in that
picture we had always assumed that if the ultraviolet
emissions are coming from deeper in the atmosphere which is
what that color represents, that it was simply due to
particles that were so energetic penetrating deeper
than the rest of them and we really never,
should have perhaps but never considered
the idea that well maybe they’re just being accelerated
out of the ionosphere and indeed when we
crossed the polar cap, the electron detector,
Jedi, measured electrons moving up away from Jupiter
across that entire inner circle and so putting the two
together, we now recognize that what we see in red
probably shows us that electrons are being pulled out
of the atmosphere by an electric potential
is what do that. We put a voltage on the field
line in an electric field and draw the electrons
out of the ionosphere. And as they’re
leaving, they excite, they collide with the
hydrogen molecules and excite
ultraviolet emissions. So it’s a 180 degree turnabout
from the way we were thinking about those emissions prior
to the Juno observations. – [Jane] Okay we’re
going to switch over for one second to social media. We have a question from
Jorge Vidal on Facebook asking if you’ve seen
the cyclones observed near Jupiter’s north pole change when you compare pictures
of different flybys? – [Candy] Yeah, the quick
and simple answer is yes. In fact we were just
puzzling yesterday over trying to see if, is
this one the same as that one or is that one the same as this
one so yeah they do change. – [Jane] Alright thanks
to Candy for that reply. We’re going to take one
more right now from Twitter. Tory is asking if
Jupiter’s magnetic poles are really far from
their axis of rotation? – [Jack] Yeah, this is Jack. The magnetic poles for
Jupiter’s magnetic field are really quite
similar to the Earth’s. The poles are offset
by about 10 degrees. But what’s different
of course is the small spatial scale features
that we’re seeing now that have to account
for the differences in what we’re measuring. To use that Earth analogy again,
if we were to follow along the surface of Jupiter along
that track with a compass, we would see it deviate
left and right much more so than when we see moving
around on the Earth. The more complex
lumpier magnetic field. But overall the broad scale
as you step away from Jupiter, we’ll call it a dipole field,
that’s really quite similar to the Earth’s dipole field
only much, much stronger. – [Jane] Thank you, Jack. We’re gonna take a question now from Space Flight Insider
and Ocean McIntyre. – [Ocean] I was just
wondering on ScottBolton3, you have this large amount
of metallic hydrogen, is there an estimate at
this point of the percentage of the planet that is
made of metallic hydrogen versus molecular hydrogen? – [Jack] This is Jack again. The current models place the
molecular hydrogen transition to metallic hydrogen down at
about 0.75, 0.8 planet radius and this is where the pressure,
about two million times the atmosphere pressure
on Earth, is so great that it squeezes the
electrons off the nuclei and they’re free to move about
much as they are in a metal. But that’s at about 0.75
or 0.8 of the planet radius and it depends on our
knowledge of the behavior of hydrogen under such extreme
pressure and temperature. This is about the pressure
that we can achieve on Earth in a laboratory with
a diamond anvil. So it’s an area of
intense research right now and they’re just
getting to mega bars where we can see stable
metallic hydrogen. – [Ocean] Thank you. – [Jane] Our next question
is from Kelly Beedee at Sky Intelliscope. – [Kelly] Yeah thanks very much. Scott, I hope at some
point you tell us which of those plasma waves
are from the monolith, Scott. This is actually for Heidi
Becker and I’m wondering, you said that there’s
a gap at the inner edge of the radiation belt
that you expected. Why do you expect that
there’s a gap there? Why doesn’t the radiation belt
go all the way to the planet? – [Heidi] Well it keeps
the electrons trapped in the magnetic field it’s
kind of a special cocktail of their direction relative
to the magnetic field and their energy relative to
the magnetic field strength. So it kinda has to be just
perfect to stay trapped and if it’s not those electrons
will just keep on going and go into the
planet and be lost. As you heard Jack talk about,
there are all of these kind of strange non uniformities
of the magnetic field so we expect there to be
some region where electrons have gone into the
planet and been lost and that it will be empty. So we did expect,
based on that theory, that there would be a gap. But we were just
crossing our fingers that there would be
for Juno and their is. – [Kelly] So if I
could just follow up. Are you saying that
very close to the planet the notion of a dipole
field breaks down and it becomes a
higher order field that allows the
electrons to be lost? – [Scott] Yes in some sense. We have an offset tilted dipole
at Jupiter, this is Scott, to some extent and
so as these electrons move around the
planet they’re trapped in the magnetic field
but the magnetic field is not perfectly aligned
with Jupiter’s synapses and it’s offset a
little from the middle. So as they go to one
side of the planet, they get a little bit
closer to the atmosphere than on the other side
because they move around in constant magnetic
field strength. So in one side they’re gonna
smash into the atmosphere before they smash into
it on the other side so they’re gonna create
a little bit of a gap. The other thing
that creates the gap is that they’re radiating
their energy away very, very quickly due
to synchrotron emission. The high energy radio
emission that comes out from relativistic motions of
these high energy electrons. So as they get
close to the planet and the magnetic field goes
up, they start radiating away. So those two processes
kind of compete against each other
to create the gap. And we knew there was a
little bit of a gap there because the Galileo
probe showed evidence of a gap as it went in. But it only sampled one spot. And there’s a gap like that at the Earth’s
radiation belts as well. – [Jane] Alright thank you. Our next question is going
to come from Mental Floss with David Brown. – [David] Hi, this
question’s for Scott. Having collected so
much data, the challenge is fundamental
assumptions about Jupiter, how does that affect
future passes by Juno? – [Scott] Well it makes
them more exciting. But the truth is we’ve just
started to scratch the surface. One of the great things
about exploration is that you go to a place
that you’ve never been before and you invent new instruments
and new kinds of ways to make measurements
and you discover things that you never
could’ve anticipated. That’s the whole point of
exploring and learning. So we went, and of course
we’re up close and personal to Jupiter for the first
time and we have some very unique instruments and
some that have been invented basically for this
mission and we saw brand new kinds of things. Now the plan always was to
go over and map the planet. So we wanna go over many
different longitudes and eventually learn
how the planet looks all the way around and
that really what tells us about how it works
inside completely and so what we’ve seen
is we’re surprised and in fact all the data
really points to the fact that we need the
rest of our mission in order to really figure
out how Jupiter works. The good news is that
we also have confirmed that Juno is the
right tool to do this. We have the right
set of instruments. We have the right orbit. We actually are going
to win over this beast and we’re gonna
learn how it works. But it’s gonna take time
and we have to be patient in order to unravel
the mysteries because many of them
are wrapped into how does Jupiter look
at different longitudes or in different time periods and so we have the
right tool to do the job and so we’re not gonna
change our observing strategy necessarily in order to
accomplish the answers to these questions but we
are changing the models and more data of course
goes in to constrain it and so that’s how science works. We will modify some of
the imaging in order to try to measure the cyclone
speeds and things like that. – [Jane] Alright we’re
at the top of the hour. We can go a few
minutes past to wrap up a couple of questions
that have been waiting on sort of a last call
for reporters on the line. If you do have a
question please press *1 and we’ll get you in the queue for a couple of final questions. In the meantime let’s jump in for a followup from Ken
Chang, New York Times. – [Ken] Thank you. I was wondering if you
managed to do any comparisons between the Juno data and what
Cassini is getting at Saturn? – [Scott] We absolutely
plan to do that. In fact I’m glad you brought
that up, it’s a great question. So I’m on the Cassini team. Many of us on Juno are
on that team as well. In fact, many, many years
ago when we first started to develop Juno I went
to the team and said why don’t we try to
take Cassini at the end and go into a Juno like orbit and we could learn about both
planets in a similar fashion. Now Cassini doesn’t
have the exact same kind of instruments
we have and of course we’re tuned to do this
interior research. But it has a lot of
great instruments that can learn about
about the interior and other things that
it can do close up and so after awhile the
Cassini team and NASA all got behind that
and of course Cassini is in that mode now. It’s exciting because
we have two spacecraft orbiting two of the giant
planets in the system and we’re both doing these
close covert like flybys and so there are plans. Of course we’re both trying
to figure out our data from our own planet
at the moment. But eventually we will
compare and of course that’s the key to
scientific advancement is comparative study. So being able to compare
Cassini’s measurements of Saturn and Jupiter’s
measurements by Juno we will really be able to
advance our understanding of how these giant planets work. – [Jane] Alright we’re
going to take a question now from Aminah Collin of
the Los Angeles Times. – [Aminah] Hi, I just
had a quick question. You mentioned that
the radiation levels were about 10 times lower than
expected, which is good news. Does this have any
implication for the orbit? You go back to some of
these shorter orbits if it seems like it’s
less damaging out there? – [Heidi] Well
this is Heidi, hi. The place that it
is referring to is this really brief sort
of two 15 minute blips that we have very
close to the planet. Our orbit is a lot
bigger and it’s great that the levels were
appearing to be 10 times less close to the planet but
that’s not all of the orbit so there’s a lot more
data from further out and the really nasty part that
we’re gonna get into later is near the equator further out from where I was talking about so it’s a little early
to speculate on levels. What we’re seeing
now is very good. The spacecraft is
behaving very well but we can really
only say right now that what we’re seeing
close to the planet is certainly much less than
what we thought would get in. – [Aminah] Thank you. – [Jane] Alright thanks. And we’re going to
take one final question from social media
then we’ll wrap up with one or two media questions. And again to remind you that
the audio with the visuals of this telecom will be archived
on That’s the number two. Okay and then also any reporter
who has not had a chance to ask a question
when we wrap up you can call us here
at the JPL newsroom which is 818-354-5011 or at NASA headquarters
newsroom as well and I’ll get you that
number when we wrap up. Alright so in the meantime we
are going to take a question from Twitter and the
question is from Leonardo who asks why are
Jupiter’s storms so big? – [Candy] Well Jupiter
itself is really big so I think the scaling,
if you compare the size of the storms on Earth
to the size of the Earth. The size of storms on Jupiter
to the size of Jupiter I don’t think it’s
really unexpected. I think that the
scaling sort of works in a very, very rough way. – [Jane] Okay. We’re going to go back
to a quick question again from Sky Intelliscope,
Kelly Beedee. – [Kelly] This is
for Candy Hansen. Candy, I’ve been following a
lot of the amateur processing of the images interaction
with the team. Can you characterize
how valuable the role of amateur
astronomers has been in creating targets and
actually enhancing the science? Is this the most
intensive interaction that you’ve had on a mission? – [Candy] Yes, it definitely is. We have a very tiny, tiny ops
team and the contributions of the amateurs are essential. I cannot understate how
important the contributions are. We don’t have a way
to plan our data without the contributions
of the amateur astronomers. We don’t have a big
image processing team. So we are completely
relying on the help of our citizen
scientists and in fact, the data interpretation as well. We have people jumping in to
help us with that as well. So if you go to the
image processing section of the mission Juno website, you’ll see that we have
over 900 contributions of images that have been
processed by members of the public and what
I find really actually the most phenomenal of all
is that this takes real work. When you download a Juno
cam image and process it, it’s not something you
do in five minutes. The pictures that we
get that people upload back onto our site, they’ve
invested hours and hours of their own time then
generously returned that to us. So it’s really been remarkable. – [Kelly] Thank you. – [Jane] Alright and our
last question comes again from Ocean McIntyre at
Space Flight Insider. – [Ocean] Regarding
the formal information, I know the microwave
radiometer has been tracking some of that information,
getting that data. Has it been anything
regarding the different thermal information,
the thermal data? Or different layers
from within Jupiter? – [Scott] I’m not sure I
understand the question. You mean in addition to
the microwave instrument? – [Ocean] Well I know that
the microwave instrument is also looking at
thermal emissions. Has there been any
data that’s come back or that’s different than
what you expected to see? – [Scott] Yeah well the way
the microwave radiometer works is we’re looking at thermal
emission coming out of Jupiter and so the data that I
presented on slide four is really the
microwave emission. We’re interpreting it
and showing it to you in terms of ammonia abundance
but we’re really looking at brightness temperatures
which are related to the temperatures inside
Jupiter’s atmosphere. So that’s exactly
what we’re looking at and showing you
the variability on. Then we have another instrument
that was built in Italy called JIRAM that
also looks at thermal but it looks at the
top part of the clouds. It doesn’t penetrate down
like the microwave does and we have maps
and we publish data associated with the thermal
emission from that as well. – [Ocean] Okay
thank you very much. – [Jane] Alright, thank you. That wraps up our Q&A
and actually wraps up this whole event. I wanna thank our
panelists today for some super interesting stuff and thanks to all our media
and social media followers who had some excellent questions and again a reminder that
you can rewatch this. It should be posted shortly
on Any follow up questions
from news media again to JPL newsroom, 818-354-5011 or Laurie Cantillo at NASA
headquarters at 202-358-1077. That’s 202-358-1077. Of course there’s lots
of info about Juno online at and also at We do have the press
release that just went out a little while ago
and that is now posted on the telecom page. Thanks everybody for joining
us and have a great day.


100 thoughts on “First Science From Juno at Jupiter (NASA News Audio with Visuals)”

  • johnny llooddte says:

    ahaha you cant get any science from 5000 miles away.. how silly.. everything you ever thought about mars from orbit proved to be WRONG..

    what a silly expensive waste.. you didnt even send a 10 dollar that would have been worth something..
    doc johnny

  • Matthew Suffidy says:

    What exactly is causing this sound at 38:00? It isn't actual sonic vibration right? Is this for example an RF response from a vector target?

  • Wolverine2050652 says:

    Jupiter produces it's own electrons? Wait…doesn't that indicate a star? So Jupiter is a failed star? Or perhaps hasn't "morphed" yet?
    Those kinds of pressures do very strange things…

  • FredBarbarossa says:
    looks like an ocean when looking at it with my Oculus rift in full screen

  • 32:00 and imagine if you saw this in real-time in motion, as you slowly pass overhead..
    You'd see all the billions of tiny white specks twinkle and sparkle in the sunlight, as ice particles reflecting the sunlight.
    It must be mindblowingly beautiful, like a starscape on the clouds of Jupiter itself.

  • psyleidoscope says:

    if anyone thinks those are real "photos" of a planet which is 365 million miles away from earth, you may want to think real hard about this reality. I will admit that they are certainly beautiful PAINTINGS!

  • That image from the north pole seems to have its colors intensified. The originals seems way lighter in the bluish tone. Thing is, the way I see it, the bluish tone could be the interior of Jupiter, not necessarily something at the most external layers. If that metallic hydrogen is represented properly, in color I mean, could that be a sort of "clear sky" that let us look deeper into Jupiter?

  • Flat earthers: Like the flies going into a open kitchen window.

    Use a telescope for once and let someone teach you how to use it you annyoing brain cancer ritten fools.

  • Keith Pieterse says:

    Fascinating! Thank you. My thirst for [more] knowledge about the solar system has been stimulated i.e. enhanced yet again. Keep up the good work!

  • rosa evelyn salas says:

    It's so sad Juno will have to end soon and can't go bzck home. But huge knowledge Juno have shared to us that can't be erased in the memories of generations. Thanks NASA, Juno will not be forgetten ….

  • SilverStrumer says:

    The south pole is probably ammonia poor. What we might be seeing is a clear view of blue liquid metallic hydrogen instead.

  • I think that the whitish cyclones at the north pole come up from deeper inside Jupiter, surfacing and pushing what had been the overlying gas outward in concentric waves moving through the top of the atmosphere. The cyclone, in the middle of those expanding concentric waves, spins a while, until it loses energy to its surroundings. The aging cyclone loses integrity of shape and becomes an irregular whitish feature that dissolves into the general background chaos. But more young cyclones are always bubbling up to replace the old ones that disappear.

  • A planet that is 1300 times bigger than our earth. Thank you so much for sharing this valuable information. We keep learning everyday more and more.

  • Sanjay Patel says:

    At 12.30 isn't it obvious that the surface appearances are a result of deeper processes which are not 'mixed-up'? The variety of formations on the surface surely reflects the variabilty of the underlying processes. Great science though to confirm this thank NASA

  • Thank you so much. I've wanted that ever since launch. 😀 Some gorgeous images. Congrats to the team, wonderful job, and it means a great deal to those of us fascinated by Astronomy.

  • Kudos to everyone involved in this project, and thanks for reaching out to the public in a practical hands on way. I would love to see NASA fully funded for a change, along with more international co-operation. We can draw all the boundaries we want, but we're all earthlings, at our best when we ask questions and explore.

  • APOD 2017-05-29 (»Beneath Jupiter«) sent me here. Cheers!
    Edited to add: the cloud photographs around 31:00 are sublime.

  • rochelimit's hangout says:

    I really feel like this is the beginning of the science for star surface mapping. The gauss meter, the gas detector. How can you map a star that continuously churn? well Juno's might be the first trigger toward this science.

  • Más astronomía says:

    I have to say … Thank you. They are great. I am passionate about all his work and his thirst for exploration. Juno is one of my favorites, along with other celebrated missions like Galileo and Cassini. Hopefully they will increase their budget so that they can go further and further. greetings from Argentina.

  • Jupiter's pole looks indistinguishable from galaxies. There's examples of almost every type of galaxy known, even the "mysterious" ones that shouldn't exist.

  • If you are christian,I know you don't believe did they break through the dome? Oh yeah, maybe operation fish bowl? My opinion, CGI, just like they said before with all those pictures of earth.

  • Kevin Richerson says:

    so is Jupiter's magnetosphere the result of metallic hydrogen, or does it have a spinning metallic core?

  • If you want to know whether the cyclones in the polar view are stable, look at them for 1 nanosecond. If they're still the same, they're stable. Then wait, look at them for 1 billion years. If they still are the same, then they're really stable. Then look at them for 1 billion years while standing on the event horizon of a black hole. If they're still there while the entire universe has flown by in a flash, then you have no idea what stable means.

  • Just another Scale Modeler says:

    I wonder if the big red eye is actually a drain of fluid. Maybe that is why It doesn't look like it moves. Or does it move?

  • David Hardinger says:

    Scientists actually did not yet know a safest orbit distance until Juno shows its orbit to be quite optimal for this kind of exploration?

  • Thanks for the upload! Great information session on Juno Mission. Jupiter is one strange planet with infinite mysteries and force. It's so lethal that Juno has to make a quick pass and get out over 21 passes as observed on NASA eyes app. It seems that it acts like a multi-layered magnetic ball with all that Hydrogen metallic. The magnetic field and hydrogen metallic properties change along with polarities as they concide with each other over the period of time and form belts at a 40k miles distance. Interesting concept, very comparable to a two big magnet forks with different charge, you'd probably get a thin layer of repeling force which in questions the similar thing on jupiter. The magnetic field from jupiter really protects our inner solar system(our backdoor) from bigger space impacts. It's so far away from the Sun but still collects some energy. lots more to explore..

  • @ 15:00–16:00 he answered his own observation. there must be land if it can form a band of clouds like earth…duh…smh..

  • NASA faking space and planets – There are no planets – they are all just luminaries (stars) – Deception will carry on for every person until his or her eyes will be opened about the truth.

  • nexhip limllari says:

    Hey NASA .why you guys don't throw 10 or more atomic bombs on 1 spot and those explosions will create a temporary crater which will give to us better chance on looking throw and not just guessing and presuming. After all why do we have all this bombs … find a good use for them

  • I have to assume that when they say something is "ten times less" than something else, they are trying to say in a very round about way that it is 10% of, or 1/10th.. Because what can be ten times less, what do you do? Take its lessness and multiply it by ten?

  • pearlwhitebuffalo says:

    THE TRUTH ABOUT JUPITER : Okay NASA lets set the record straight. Jupiter was a regular planet with a crust and a molten core just like the rest of the larger planets when about 75,000 years ago A high velocity projectile expelled by an exploding star came into our solar system through a planetary alignment and picked off the larger planets like a bullet through an eggshell in a vacuum creating lesser velocity projectiles (periodic comets) and the moons were also born of this event from the bleeding of the molten cores spilled out into space. Pushed elliptical positions of all planets follow an exact opposite trajectory as Halley's comet ( lesser velocity projectile) which was born of Neptune at 296 degrees in Capricorn where Pluto was also born and cast into Hyades (Hades) and its corrected orbit is 174 years not 248 as previously believed, Anyways Jupiter's lesser velocity projectiles 26+ periodic comets go down around the sun carrying debris which they acquire upon their return to whence they were born from the molten core of Jupiter where they've been ripping out debris from what is known as the (GIRDLE of THOR) and have eaten the spindle down to about 1/5 the diameter of the planet which can be seen as the bright balls are passing behind the spindle shown on infra red video which will also allow velocity to be measured by our scientists if they can acknowledge that someone decided that they needed a little help in understanding GALACTIC FORENSICS before it's to late. Anyways HUE MAN hope you can comprehend (OMEGA)

  • Henrik Yngvesson says:

    Ice/rock core? What about a magma core? With all that pressure and size I believe it would be pretty hot in there.

  • I want to say thank you to the entire team for all the work they've done for this mission. I`d also like to say a special thanks to Scott Bolden for his part in recording the sounds of Jupiter. To really get to hear Jupiter`s sounds is absolutely phenomenal, it almost as though it`s singing. I would also like to ask Scott what does he attribute these sounds to? Thanks again, James M. Kenyon

  • Gordon Anderson says:

    I want to know now – are those clouds water ice?
    See they seem to be emissions, and this would give great weight to my theory the colored bands are massed life forms similar to plankton or fungi; and the emissions of water would mean they are something like life on Earth! They do look like mats of pants in some of these photos. Any sign of DNA or something like it?

  • fifilafiloche says:

    How can you get a clear images while travelling at 50OOO miles per hour while most of us get a blur image when we move a little bit on earth..

  • we can not imagine how advanced the technology and space exploration would be today, if NASA had a small part of the money that goes to the defence.

  • so these white clouds above the cloud layer that are made of hydrogen/methane crystals are floating blocks off ice above the clouds?

  • Paulo Constantino says:

    What a bunch of lies… These are CGI and not real photos of jupiter… Lies lies lies. They are so obviously fake. Now I ask, WHY LIE ?

  • Valentina Sherren says:

    As my daughter would say, there's "too much information" flooding my senses from this website – I can't take anything in

  • Listen if you want to visual it then you have to go through the world and have to make a beautifull garden to a beautiful culture. The hole circumstances will meet their.

  • Hope you have all wrong information. For protection they can change any things. They can create any things are can controll any things. They are. The civilasition they introduce to earth was to feel it and to realise it.not to have it own property.

  • It would seem the theory of Jupiter needs to be revised. The poles were not supposed to be this active. Nasa has too many surprises in the solar system based on current theory. It appears we need to be looking at all of our options.

  • Your hypothesis says you believe flowing metallic hydrogen will produce an electric field, yet there is no evidence that indicates this idea to be true. No one has been able to produce and electric field from rotation liquid metals.

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