Anti-Vaccination Conspiracy Theories Being Spread On Social Media | Velshi & Ruhle | MSNBC


100 thoughts on “Anti-Vaccination Conspiracy Theories Being Spread On Social Media | Velshi & Ruhle | MSNBC”

  • If kids gets measles, their parents needs to be punished with measles themselves. That would create a proper natural selection.

  • Anybody remembers THAT?
    Herblife and Distributors scheme?
    Merck/Sanofi Pasteur/Seqirus/Dynavax/Pfizer and Drs/Pharmacies scheme?
    Herblife is good, effective lets Mandate that?
    Vaccines are good, effective lets Mandate that?
    Do you follow the problem?

  • Liberals like to say conservatives are anti-science, and I think they mostly are, BUT these anti-vaxxers and not conservatives they are mostly liberals. So are the alt-science that says pratically all ills can be cured by natural remedies. Again, these people are not conservatives they are anti-social, anti-establishment liberals.

  • You’re spreading fake news. A complete bastardized version of facts. So sad we can’t even rely on our media to report fact and not propaganda

  • Measles has a .01% death rate in the USA dating back to the 50’s before the vaccine ever came out. The MMR VACCCINE has killed nearly 400 kids per our vaccine injury reporting system.

  • I recommend you look into Dr Zimmerman, pediatric neurologist at John Hopkins, he recently released and affidavit stating that vaccine CAN cause autism in some and when he brought that to the attention of the DOJ they fired him as an expert witness in our federal vaccine court.

  • vaccine machine relies on suppression of evidence, attacks on honest critics, and their own tobacco science.
    billions quietly paid out by NVICP, but the overwhelming majority of vaccine injuries are never even REPORTED. OF the thousands reported, only a tiny few are compensated. therefore, the real numbers of dollars that should have been paid out to vaccine injured people is in the trillions and trillions. “Adverse events from drugs and vaccines are common, but underreported. […] Likewise, fewer than 1% of vaccine adverse events are reported. Low reporting rates preclude or slow the identification of ‘problem’ drugs and vaccines that endanger public health. New surveillance methods for drug and vaccine adverse effects are needed.”

    Again, let’s stop and think about this revelation for a moment: fewer than 1% of vaccine adverse events are reported. The CDC’s entire vaccination propaganda campaign rests on their claim that side effects from vaccination are exceedingly rare (and predominantly minor). According to the CDC, in 2016 alone, VAERS received 59,117 vaccine adverse event reports. Among those reports were 432 deaths, 1,091 permanent disabilities, 4,132 hospitalizations, and 10,274 emergency room visits. What if these numbers actually represent less than 1% of the total as this report asserts? Simple multiplication would yield vaccine adverse events reports numbering 5,911,700!

  • please research for yourself, you will find mountains of evidence is being hidden.. Do NOT blindly trust the medical establishment or corporate media..Dr. Marcia Angell, a physician and longtime Editor in Chief of the New England Medical Journal (NEMJ), which is considered to another one of the most prestigious peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, makes her view of the subject quite plain:

    “It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of the New England Journal of Medicine” (source)

  • PLEASE do your own research! The statistical probability is infinitesimal that each and every case of regressive autism following vaccinations are ALL "just a coincidence"… even if someone were to claim that a single such case was 99% likely to be a coincidence- for 2000 such cases to ALL be coincidental there is a 0.00000018637566 % chance ….  tragically the actual number of children regressing into autism is around 20,000 per year- the possibility that ALL of those cases are just coincidental would be 5.0569883e-88. add to that impossibility, the notion that EVERY single study that links autism and vaccines is "flawed".. that the staggering amounts of aluminum have been found in brains of autistic people, but that is just a coincidence.. that Somali and African-American kids have much higher rates of autism and also much higher antibody response to the MMR, but that's just a "coincidence" . that Hannah Poling’s regression into autism following vaccines was the “only” such case in world history.. that every single case of damages being awarded to autistic kids for vaccine injuries are all just "mistakes".. that data shows that autism spikes after increases in the vaccine schedule and that pattern is observable in four different periods, in four different countries, but that’s all “coincidental”.. that every single expert, scientist, or doctor who publicly warns of brain damage and autism as a result of vaccines are ALL "quacks".. that multiple other lab analyses have confirmed wakefield's findings, but they are all “in cahoots with Wakefield”..   that every single incidence of important facts being hidden from the public are all explainable because "they aren't important".. Japan banned the MMR, but americans never heard about it at all.. the CDC’s William Thompson's statements have been blacked out of the media..  honest people do NOT hide important evidence or information- the coverup is proof of guilt. . there is no valid reason that critically important stories should be hidden- anyone continuing to trust those corrupt sources has chosen to stay in the dark.. thousands and thousands of normal children regress into autism each year.. the study below clearly documents the fact, even though the researchers have blindly swallowed the ridiculous "coincidence" theory

  • Here’s so actual reporting. CBS’s Full Measure reporting on recent affidavit given by Dr Zimmerman, leading autism researcher and John Hopkins neurologist…. “vaccines can cause autism in some children”

  • Some of the specific information in this video are filled with some false information. With so many deaths and health problems that develop from certain vaccinations, people are opting out of vaccinations. If producers of vaccinations would eliminate deadly and destructive ingredients, people wouldn't fight the vaccinations. There are scientific facts that support the fact many ingredients are destructive to our health. We had a young man in our area, who was highly involved with sports, literally degrade physically after the HPV vaccination. He was healthy until that vaccine. Can't deny these issues. Let the producers of vaccinations clean up the vaccines that have deadly/health destroying ingredients and people wouldn't fight these vaccines. All 4 of us siblings got measles, and we survived with no repercussions. Yet I see people's kids who get the MMR vaccines, and they still come down with the measles. I believe the vaccinations have changed from when we got them. I know of no one who got sick back in the 1950s from vaccinations. That is NOT the case today. TOO MANY vaccines today are health hazards. Clean up the ingredients and people would think differently. Kids don't need as many vaccinations as are pushed on babies/toddlers as they do today.

  • MSNBC is bias. Where is the post about Freedom?
    Freedom to choose? I made very strong and undeniable point and of course it was deleted…

  • A real debate between a toxicologist and a pediatrician about vaccines. The toxicologist is the antivaxxer shocking right? The toxic vaccines are obvious to her!! The pediatrician is a complete moron.

  • All I hear are conspiracies fueled by Big Pharma against people who do their research, are well informed and / or have bad reactions to vaccines, about the dangerous of vaccines. You are the ones doing the conspiracy, not the antivaxxers…

  • if you look at the study referenced on the CDC page it's the 2011 IOM report. In that report conclusion 10.6, it says "the evidence is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship between diphtheria-toxoid-, tetanus toxoid-, or acellular pertussis-containing vaccine and autism. NOW DON'T ATTACK ME, THAT IS STRAIGHT FROM THE INSTITUTES OF MEDICINES 2011 REPORT. Meaning that the claim on the CDC page that "Vaccines don't cause Autism" is false because they don't know

  • Vaccines don't cause autism they say. Well then what does cause autism? We don't know…… You don't know what causes autism? No………… Then how do you know that vaccines don't cause autism? Well they just don't…………… But you just said you don't know what causes autism……………… That's right I just said that……………. The pro-vaxx logic…….

  • OHHH MEASLES…the new Ebola. You're a disgrace to journalism. Get your facts straight. Stop saying myth when the only study that showed a correlation was scrubbed and data was destroyed. Why don't you interview William Thompson, senior scientist for the CDC that was the whisteblower????????

  • Arthur Tassinello says:

    This issue is out of control. Every person must have the right to decide what they put into their bodies. If you want to vaccinate please do that, but do not tell me that I must vaccinate. If you vaccinate how does my not being vaccinated harm you? It doesn't, so please leave me to choose. And there are scientific studies on both sides of this issue.

  • There is mercury in vaccines. Let's do a real study on vaccines and not take the word of these companies which produce the vaccines.

  • Reject the poison guys. The Mainstream Media are owned by the same people that own big pharma and they don’t have our best interests at heart. Research into the Amish community who don’t vaccinate and have virtually zero cases of autism.

  • Rachel Rasmussen says:

    What the ever loving nonsense is this? "Facts should never be argued?" Okay- I didn't know we had peaked in human intelligence. "People are making money off this" Umm, pretty sure joe shmoes tee shirt has nothing on the Vaccine Industry money. I've never made a dime sharing my story of my child's vaccine injury. The reporter asks "what's behind this?" Maybe a lot of injured kids is behind it. Open your eyes!

  • AscensionStudiosCA says:

    Conspiracies? There are over 100 peer reviewed studies which showcase the dangers and risks of vaccines. You cannot call science a ''conspiracy''. The fact that social media is starting to censor science showcases the fact that this is all a coordinated effort to promote vaccines and big pharma profits. If you are pro-science you should be willing to examine ALL the science.

  • Vitamin A stops the measles virus from rapidly multiplying inside cells by up-regulating the innate immune system in uninfected cells which helps to prevent the virus from infecting new cells. It is well known today that a low vitamin A level correlates with low measles-specific antibodies and increased morbidity and mortality.

    – D. Stephens et al., "Subclinical Vitamin A Deficiency: A Potentially Unrecognized Problem in the United States," Pediatric Nursing Journal, vol. 22, no. 5, September-October 1996, pp. 377-389


    "For over 100 years there has been a strong association with vitamin A deficiency and adverse measles outcomes, especially in young children. Has the time come for the medical community to recognize that any child presenting with measles complications should be given vitamin A and evaluated for overall nutritional status? If not, what has history taught us?"

    – Adrianne Bendich 1992


    From "Cinnamon Stops Measles," New York Times, August 12, 1917

    "Dr. W. B. Drummond, Medical Superintendent of Baldovan Insititution for the Feebleminded, describes in The British Medical Journal his experience with cinnamon in the preventative treatment of German measles. He urges that it be tried extensively in the endeavor to prevent epidemics of the ordinary variety of measles . . . Cinnamon is a drug whose therapeutic virtues are not sufficiently recognized. The essence of cinnamon in twenty-five-drop doses is one of the most effective remedies in cases of acute coryza, [inflammation of nasal mucous membranes] . . . some years ago an article was published in The Journal strongly advo-cating cinnamon as a preventative of measles."

  • They die because of bad medical practice, poor sanitation and food and water contamination, No hygiene, people worked to bone in dark damp filthy cesspools. Tenements combined with slaughter houses. Sick and immune damaged. Contaminated vaccines created with sick animals with cow pox.

  • Follow the science or lack there of from the CDC, HHS, governments. Look at the current data. It's all right there. Can you not see the elephant in the room. Take the wool off your eyes.

  • in all fairness, nobody should be coerced into being medicated… Obviously, they should vaccinate themselves, but… coercion isn't the remedy

  • Are you out of your mind? Everyone my age had the measles. I had all 3 types , so did all of my friends! No one died! No one had any permanent injuries! Scientific studies have not been done on safety! You have it backwards! Is this what you have to do to keep your jobs?! I think if all lost your minds!

  • OMG, such horse crap. MSNBC was the only channel I watched thinking they were fair. GONE…NO MORE MSNBC IN MY HOUSE JUST BLOCKED THE STATION ON ALL MY TVS.

  • The name of the group was " Stop Mandatory Vaccination." Not "Get Rid of all Vaccines." The activists are just protecting people's rights to choose what to put in their bodies. No government or organization should have the power to take away someone's child for something like this. Not vaccinating is NOT abuse, so please stop portraying it that way.

  • Lindsey O'Farrell says:

    My son is vaccine Injured. That's why I am in this Facebook group. And no it's not to buy t-shirts or remedies. The owner of the page is a ND, and author. Not justa t-shirt maker . The fact that they dumb down anti vaccine parents as idiots. When we are the ones who actually know what's listed on insert to be included in that vaccine…where as the general public has no idea…those are the ones buying t-shirts…and generally misinformed.

  • Break the Chains says:

    @3:47 MSNBC seems to be missing the point. "Stop Mandatory Vaccination" isn't the same thing as "Stop Vaccination." I realize that adjectives are physically painful to read and acknowledge but ignoring them doesn't make them go away. Most "anti-vaccine" individuals are so because either they have personally been injured by a vaccine or the know someone that has been. The message they are giving isn't that vaccination should be stopped outright. They are saying that people should not only have a say in what medical procedures they must undergo but also people should be properly informed of all potential side effects and risks associated with those procedures…AKA "Informed Consent."

    The "pro-vaccine" crowd don't feel that people have a right to know about side effects and risks. They also don't feel that anyone should have a choice in the matter. So, they ignore the actual message being given and make up their own.

  • Creating My Ideas by Vickie Novak says:

    Blaaa, blaaa, blaaa measles is just a rash you get for a couple week then your immune. Get vaccinated and you live with a life long health issues. The number she is spuing is BS! Have you looked up the ingredients on the CDC websighy! Its [email protected]#%ing horrific what they are injecting you with. Facts are vaccines are a sham. Bill Gates even admitted they are being used to depopulate the planet. Dont by the hype people.

  • Creating My Ideas by Vickie Novak says:

    There are no studies proving they dont cause autism, in fact I've seen quite to opposite. I have clients who's kids regressed into Autism days after getting vaccinated. You people need to do some research before calling out parental who choose to keep their kids healthy!

  • So much misinformation! How about you report on how vaccines are not tested for safety and never have been. And how one in two kids have chronic condition and how billions of dollars are paid for vaccine injury. Smh! Pharmas whores

  • Critical Analysis says:

    ‘Misinformation Crackdown’? ?? Good God. Aside unavoidably spotting the intensely misleading, yet attention-grabbing banner, one can't help but instantly notice how she kicks off this scheming sermon by first attempting to induce alarm ( “… and more children are getting sick, really sick…”), then immediately goes into hurling accusations (“… due to a new wave of ‘conspiracy theories’…”)…. unless, of course, one is completely comatose. Obvious (at least to the clear-thinkers) is the unwavering and precise parroting of the label ‘conspiracy theories’. It never deviates, and that’s because it’s effective as a tool for craftily convincing countless slumbering folks of the grand lie that suggests that anyone (including dissenting research scientists, professors of public health, Board Certified psychiatrists, psychosomatic medicine experts, integrative holistic medicine experts, cellular detox experts, vaccine injury attorneys, clinical professors of medicine, bio-engineers, as well as principal investigators of vaccine clinical trials) speaking out against the actual and proven toxicity of vaccines is doing so out of pure conjecture.

    Indeed, the label 'Conspiracy Theories' is woefully effective as a means of further dissuading an unsuspecting audience from proper focus on and consideration of truth. And of course, for the reason that social media is not only a powerful means by which countless folks impart truth, but is also a useful tool by which countless have attained awareness of truth, now we see (not surprisingly) backlash and drastic measures being considered and taken to halt further spread of accurate information and wakefulness. What a theater of the absolute most absurd. Not certain whether to laugh or cry over having a front row seat to this level of pathetic madness.

  • These newscasters are total liars. 100% Proof! Human DNA in Vaccines

  • It actually the opposite
    People are allowing natural reactions to create natural immunity.
    Huge auto immunity issues and autism Ian not a myth, dangerous negligence here

  • Parents join SMV not because they were forced or attracted financially.
    You don’t know and have no clue what you are reporting and misinforming people. The CDC and WHO are black holes who are committed fraud by lying people and misrepresenting Data.
    What myth is vaccines are safe and effective. Over 4 billions pf dollars from Taxpayers money is being paid through Vaccine Injury Court. Parents whose children or loved ones got injured, harmed or were effected joined together and run that group. Stop demonizing citizens. You are looking the wrong way. Get yourself educated.
    All parents have rights. Woman have rights to decide for their own child to abort the child or decide for the child after it was born. Don’t violate Constitution of United Stats of America.

  • No medical procedures or drugs must be mandatory. SMV has a strong belief in it as Citizens are trying to preserve their right to choose. No one can Mandate anything to the country of Freedom

  • You know most people who I know who are “anti-vaccine” used to be pro-vaccine but have a vaccine injured child. If we have no choice whAt the govt injects us with we have no freedom. And talking about censoring??? Are you kidding me. Quit with the hysteria!

  • Funny, no mention of jus about every pharmaceutical drug and their serious side effects like suicidal thoughts and possible death.. let alone the CDCs own directors who’ve lost their jobs for exposing them?!? These “scientists did the studies, totally unbiased, because they’re moral saints, the same people who agree with killing a baby in the third trimester.. the lies are soooo shallow now, it’s pathetic.. why do you think Reagan passed the NVIC program in 1986?! Ohh, I didn’t know y’all were trying to keep that hush.. ?

  • Besides the possibility of a pandemic spread of measles, I wonder if parents have asked their children if they want to be vaccinated explaining what health consequences may be if they don’t. Measles In older & young adult male children have a high percentage result in male sterilization and maybe the same for girls, check it out. Parents are making life choices for their sons to never be able to Father children. Terrible

  • "Who would be behind something like this?" Well, Donald Trump, for one! Don't think you can blame him for ALL of it, though…

  • Here's where funny. These idiotic conspiracy theories believing parents. That are anti-vaccine supporters will not get infected by these diseases and or viruses. While their children will be out there suffering and infecting others.

  • We are calling for an end to the public bullying, gaslighting and discrimination of vaccine-injured children and their parents. The hate and hostility projected towards these people has reached shocking levels. The open discrimination by employers, educators, legislators, medical professionals and neighbors is unbelievable. The censorship by social media, as well as the manipulation by TV and radio media, of any idea that calls vaccine safety and efficiency into question as un-American. Like all censorship and discrimination towards a group of people, its genesis is fear and ignorance.
    We are calling on the media to do their job! Where are the investigative journalists in mainstream media?! Where are today's Woodward and Bernstein? Why do they not report on vaccine injury? Why do they not report the alarms being sounded by top level scientists regarding integrity in science? Why do they not report on the cases of fraud and whistleblowers surrounding vaccines and their manufacturers? Why do they not report on the $4 billion paid through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program? Why do they not report what parents endure when navigating that program? Why is their reporting so often so one-sided?
    We demand equal air time and fair reporting in the media. We are adults with legitimate concerns over vaccine safety that deserve respect and attention. Instead of addressing our concerns, we are mocked and discriminated against, as are our children. Trained, qualified professionals have lost jobs for not vaccinating. Legislators have been lampooned as conspiracy theorists for even entertaining the notion of investigating vaccine safety. Healthy children have been kicked out of doctor’s offices, daycare centers, schools and playgroups for not vaccinating. What has happened to you, America? If vaccine science has the integrity it claims and can prove vaccine safety then we invite those studies to be made public in their entirety. We want to see the placebos used and the duration of the outcomes studied in vaccine safety studies.
    We are not the ridiculous, flaky, psuedoscience followers the propaganda would have you believe. We are parents. We are doctors, We are nurses. We are scientists. We are your neighbors, friends and family. But most of all, we are concerned about the health of our children. We did vaccinate our children for a time. We stopped. Aren't you curious to know what caused us to change our minds? Do you really believe we are all just desperate conspiracy theorists coordinating our own mass conspiracy against pharmaceutical companies?
    We need a professional public debate on this issue, once and for all. Force and censorship are not the routes pursued by those confident in the merits of their position. They are the tactics of tyrants. We, who are vaccine hesitant, have been asking for a public debate for years! Not only do we have nothing to hide, we are eager to explain our position. Bring your most educated and qualified doctors and scientists. We will provide our doctors and scientists to debate our side. No more news reports with a pro-vaccine doctor countering a parent of a vaccine-injured child whose interview has been edited unfavorably. It’s time to let the science speak! Let’s have a real debate! Now!
    Via: Michelle Lynn

  • These are not conspiracy Theories. Measles is contagious, but it has an extremely LOW level of harm. Vaccines, on the other hand, have an extremely HIGH level of harm. You need to do some real research. The unvaccinated kiddos will be FINE.

  • I don't get why Trumpers are anti-science and anti-public health. When dangerous contagious diseases are left uncontrolled, the country as a whole suffers. In most cases the parents will have had the benefits of vaccinations, and yet they leave ther children unprotected.

  • If anyone would like to take this survey that I made for one of my classes about vaccines I would really appreciate it. You'll remain anonymous and it would really help me out. 🙂 Thank you!

  • Ironically I’d bet that most of the people commenting that vaccinating should be mandatory because children’s lives are at risk probably support late term abortions as well.

  • M????Bvn??™️ says:

    We all need to wake up this is stupid man make me feel like this life is fake. I see why mfs shoot Up government meetings and schools

  • go to the cdc wonder search web site to see all the vaccine injuries and deaths they list. go to to find loads of vaccine information. the amount of evidence against vaccines is enormous and clearly points to serious conflicts of interest and the use of illogical, antiquated, improper science. once you do your own look-see, you'll be flabbergasted, just I was, as a nurse of many years. follow the money and take your time. do not be pressured by anyone to vaccinate ! to all nurses out there, investigate vaccines–both sides of issue–because you owe it to your patients…drs will not turn this misguided ship around.

  • the member of congress I spoke with said she will watch the movie, VAXXED and start her own investigation into the problems with vaccines. the institute of medicine did a survey of all the studies done so far and they came to the conclusion that there isn't enough data yet to say vaccines do not cause autism. big pharma is the largest lobby, far outdoing big oil, big banks, big agra and they have their tentacles all the way into medical journals, controlling what gets published. they control the cdc, fda, hhs, nih, what is taught in medical and nursing schools, and what is aired on the media. ask your dr or nurse what they were taught in school about vaccines or vaccine injury. you'll get "pretty much, nothing, just that we had to know the vaccine schedule." yet dr's and hospitals get big money the more you vaccinate. It is not fair that the taxpayer has paid over $4 billion in vaccine injury compensation. why? because Ronald Reagan and congress, in 1986, took liability away from the vaccine makers and created a special vaccine injury court. – so you have to sue the government when your child is injured by a vaccine. congress, at the time, also mandated that hhs was to give congress bi-annual reports of safety testing. HHS Has not done this.

  • I do not believe you and it is my right to say NO! The whole docor thing is overrated. in my 59 years every time I saw a doctor they wanted to give me a chemically processed pill. the refusal of injection of chemicals into our children is not a conspiracy it is our choice as human beings to say NO NO NO!!!

  • HurricaneKitty67 says:

    This is PROPAGANDA!!!!!! We hear all about measles outbreaks & how deadly it is, yet none of these are ever updated with any deaths. BC ITS NOT DEADLY!!!!! It’s basically the chicken pox!! Plus, they never tell you where the virus originated, A VACCINATED PERSON, the newly vaccinated shed the illness bc the ITS A LIVE VACCINE!!!!

    They’re trying to scare you into hating ppl who know the truth!! Look up the vaccine court & how many payouts are made & how many cases of autism were REWARDED MONEY BC THEY SUCCESSFULLY PROVED THEIR CASE!!

    You must realize the number of vaccines in the 80’s was 10 vaccines by age 6.

    Today, 25 vaccines by SIX MONTHS OLD!!!!!!!

    2.5x what I got by 6 YEARS OLD, babies get by 6 months!!!!!


    They lie about false flag attacks to sell you on war. So our ppl die while their bosses get richer.
    They lie about vaccines, for profit & bc they’re creating life long customers of the pharmaceutical industry from all the deadly allergies mental problems chronical autoimmune illnesses none of this was around in the 80’s early 90’s!

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers aren’t even responsible for any damages their products cause!!! WE THE TAXPAYER PAY THE PRICE OF THESE SICK INJURED AND MURDERED CHILDREN, a small price to pay compared to the parents of these children who allowed lying millionaires to scare them into diseasing or even killing their previously healthy child.

    Wake up ppl!!!!!

  • Kids aren't getting sick because of not getting vaccinated. They are getting sick because the vaccinated are shedding their diseases and viruses…Load up on Vitamin A and you'll be just fine. Measles is not a serious I'll ess.

  • Measles were eradicated in 2000, at least that’s what we were told. So who lied and how did these outbreaks happen out of nowhere?

  • Kingly Sunny says:

    Vaccination Mafia is scared that one day the truth will come out in the open. Could there be portions in those drugs to alter our DNA. I think so.

  • looks through the comments section and finds a bunch of anti-vaxxers
    There seems to be no sign of intelligent life around here.

  • Dr. Shaun C. Rice says:

    It’s bad to take any and all vaccines / flu shots. It’s a government controlled toxin that benefits them and not you. Google says life expectancy is 79yrs old. With a growing 8 billion on ? let’s it’s a political polite population adjustment ?

  • Did you know that no vaccine last for a lifetime that's why you have to keep getting boosters..
    Also fun facts CDC website source states that 40% of American adults are only vaccinated so herd immunity is not efficient never has been.

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